Answer ... If the employer terminates the employee based on valid reasons, but the employee claims that no reasons were given for his or her dismissal or that the reasons given were not valid as per the Labour Code, he or she may file suit against the dismissal.
In cases of a dismissal with notice (provided that the employee is covered by job security protection), the burden of proving that the dismissal was based on valid reasons rests on the employer.
Since 1 January 2018, the parties to employment-related disputes have been obliged to attempt mediation before bringing an employment claim to the court (except for claims arising from workplace accidents and occupational diseases).
A dismissed employee who seeks reinstatement must commence mediation within one month of the date of the termination letter, stating that no reasons - or no valid reasons - were given for the termination. If the parties fail to reach an agreement at the end of the mediation, a claim may be brought in the courts within two weeks of preparation of the final written minute.
If a mediator or a labour court concludes that the dismissal with notice is invalid because the employer gave no reasons - or no valid reasons - for the dismissal, the employer must, in principle, reinstate the employee within one month. In such cases the employee must apply to the employer for reinstatement within 10 working days of the decision being communicated to him or her (if the employee does not apply within this period, the dismissal is deemed valid). If the employer does not reinstate the employee on application, it must pay him or her financial compensation. In such cases the compensation is set by the court at between four and eight months’ salary.
Irrespective of whether the employee is reinstated or receives financial compensation for the dismissal, the employer must pay his or her salary and other benefits for the period between termination and the decision, up to a maximum of four months. In practice, invalid dismissal cases may last for up to two and a half years, including appeals.
Valid grounds are not required for the dismissal with notice of an employee employed under an indefinite-term employment contract who is not covered by job security protection. Therefore, such employees cannot file suit seeking reinstatement or compensation for invalid dismissal. However, in certain circumstances such employees may claim that they were dismissed in bad faith and file suit seeking compensation of three times the salary payable for the statutory notice period that would have otherwise been applicable.
The above provisions are also applicable in the event of termination for just reason.
Employees employed under fixed-term employment contracts may not be dismissed with notice during the term of the contract (except where this is for more than 10 years, in which case the contract may be terminated after 10 years with six months’ notice). Where such employee is terminated for just reason, he or she may claim that there were no just reasons for the dismissal and file suit seeking compensation from the employer in the form of the salary and benefits to which he or she would have been entitled until the end of the contract’s term, subject to any deductions made by the court.