Tom: Too many organisations embark on a transformation with an over-optimistic view of what it takes. They don't correctly assess if they have those skills and experiences within their organisation. And you may end up with staff trying to deliver complex change who've never done it before. Or team members may take it on as a side project alongside their day job, but they don't have the right time, motivation or performance incentives. That means slow progress and that breeds frustration.

Priya: People then question the validity of the transformation, and they think that the goal was wrong, when actually the real issue is lack of skills and capacity. A way to address this could be to invest in external skills and experience, but this can make you over-dependent on third parties, which can have far-reaching consequences long after the programme is over. So it's worth being mindful that you still need an internal team with the right experience to manage external suppliers well.

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