A whistleblowing hotline is part of a whistleblowing system or process that is set up by a business, organisation, charity, or government body.
The whistleblowing system or process is designed to help employees, volunteers, and others, to report wrongdoing, illegal or unethical behaviour that is occurring within the workplace.
The term 'whistleblowing hotline' originates in the pre-digital era and originally referred simply to a telephone reporting line. With the advent of digital technology and the Internet the term is now used as a catch-all to describe all forms of whistleblowing contact, including the submission of online forms, emails, and voicemails, as well as the still heavily used telephone itself.
To properly understand why an organisation might want to set up a whistleblowing hotline, see our article '5 solid reasons to have a robust external whistleblowing reporting system'.
The term 'Whistleblowing Hotline' is sometimes known by other names...
Sometimes businesses and organisations will shy away from the term 'whistleblowing' because they believe it might imply there is wrongdoing within their industry.
Equally, there are industries that want to be even more explicit than the term whistleblowing hotline suggests, using words like 'fraud' and 'safeguarding'. Businesses and organisations in this bracket often take a 'does what it says on the tin' approach to be absolutely clear what they are trying to prevent.
Of course, there is no absolute answer to what a whistleblowing hotline should be called... it simply depends on the sensitivities of the corporate culture within the organisation.
Some other alternative names for whistleblowing hotlines that are often heard are...
- Whistleblowing line
- Whistleblowing system
- Whistleblowing helpline
- Anonymous reporting system
- Anonymous hotline
- Confidential reporting system
- Confidential hotline
- Speak-up line
- Speak-up hotline
- Ethics line
- Security hotline
- Fraud line
- Fraud prevention line
- Fraud hotline
- Loss prevention line
Many businesses and organisations will name or 'brand' their whistleblowing system to reflect their desire to show they are taking active steps to prevent wrongdoing.
Who would use a whistleblowing hotline?
The legal definition of a whistleblower varies depending on the country they are reporting from, but in essence, a whistleblower brings information about potential wrongdoing to light and gives the organisation the opportunity to start investigating the matter.
A whistleblower is usually an employee or volunteer, who speaks up when they observe or learn of potential rule breaking, wrongdoing, or illegality within their organisation.
This potential wrongdoing might concern fraud, bribery, sexism, racism, age or ability discrimination, shaming, bullying or even violence.
Whistleblowers usually report incidents that take place within the place they work or the supply chains or networks they work within.
The whistleblower speaks up via a reporting channel the organisation has put in place. This reporting channel might include land-line telephone, mobile phone, smartphone, webpage, tablet, voicemail, email or even a good old-fashioned letter.
Why Implement a Whistleblowing Hotline?
Specific driving factors behind the implementation of a whistleblowing hotline vary from organisation to organisation, but there are five general characteristics that prompt the need for a whistleblowing process or system to be put in place.
- Legislation or Governance
- An incident has happened
- An incident is happening
- Prevention of an incident that might be happening
- Deterrence of potential incidents
Let us take each of these factors in turn...
Legislation or Governance
There are many situations where a business, organisation, charity or government body might be compelled by legislation or a governing body to implement a whistleblowing hotline. Two examples of this are the EU Whistleblowing Directive that came into effect in December 2021, and the forth coming German Supply Chain Due Diligence Act of 2023.
The driver in this case is clear-cut. It is the need to be compliant with the Law or the governing body.
An incident has happened
It is sometimes the case that after a major incidence of wrongdoing has occurred and any resultant tribunals and fines have been issued, a business, organisation, charity or government body will implement a whistleblowing hotline.
The driver is the need to help prevent any future malpractice or wrongdoing and show that the lesson has been learnt.
An incident is happening
Sometimes it is necessary to implement a whistleblowing hotline because it is a clear and positive response to a wrongdoing incident that is happening at that very moment.
The driver is the need to show to employees and internal and external stakeholders that immediate action is being taken.
Prevention of an incident that might be happening
On occasion there might be an awareness that some level of potential wrongdoing is happening, but that there is no proof. By installing a whistleblowing hotline, the management of the organisation is acting to try to bring any issues out into the open. In this case the adoption of a whistleblowing channel is designed to give confidence to the whistleblower that their report will be taken seriously.
The driver is the need to establish whether there is an issue at all, and if there is, to expose it.
Deterrence of potential incidents
The final general driver is deterrence. Many industries or sectors can be seen to have an element of temptation to them, or an inclination toward solving situations by short-cuts or force. Fully operational and active whistleblowing hotlines act as a direct deterrent to any wrongdoing.
The driver here is to deter any wrongdoing before it has even occurred.
Anonymity, semi-anonymous and named whistleblowing reports
Although whistleblowing can be by named or semi-anonymous individuals, the option to make anonymous calls to a whistleblowing hotline is essential to any whistleblowing policy and process.
It is essential because the safety of the whistleblower is paramount, and in some workplaces any identification of the whistleblower might result in retaliation from colleagues.
Indeed, the provision of a confidential reporting channel is a key feature of many whistleblower protection laws and codes of conduct.
How does a confidential whistleblowing hotline benefit a business or organisation?
- It protects employees.
Whistleblowing hotlines allow employees to raise issues that they might find uncomfortable raising with their manager. These issues might include fraud, sexism, racism, ageism, or other discrimination that could incriminate their colleagues.
- It allows managers to gather intelligence that can be used to assess risk.
Good intelligence is essential to deterring or successfully handling wrongdoing in the workplace, and there is no better source of information than employees who work there... but only if the employees do not live in fear of the consequences.
- It protects the company's reputation.
Employees that do not have access to a confidential speak-up channel, are far more likely to a) say nothing, or b) use a public channel such as the press or social media. By offering confidentiality employers are both more likely to hear about any potential wrongdoing and safeguard themselves against public exposure in a channel they are less able to influence.
What are the key features of a successful whistleblowing hotline?
Easy access to the hotline by telephone, web, mobile phone/smartphone, tablet, physical address or in person, on a 24/7/365 basis.
- Multiple languages
Reports can be taken from the whistleblower in their native language where required. This might be via a bi-lingual call handler or through a translator.
- The whistleblower has the option of confidentiality
Whistleblowers should be able to report any issues anonymously wherever possible. They should also have the right to be kept informed of any report progress.
The whistleblowing hotline provider, and any services provided, should be compliant with all legislation, including GDPR, data protection and privacy laws, wherever the hotline call is taken from. All policies and certification should be kept current and accessible to both the business or organisation employing the provider, and to the whistleblower themselves.
- The confidential hotline service should be visible
All employees, whether existing or new, should be made aware of the service and the reasons for using it. Regular reinforcement through communications and training should be used to maintain awareness.
- Reporting should be measurable
All reporting data and information should be stored, measurable, and capable of being benchmarked and assessed against other anonymous whistleblowing data from the employer's commercial peers.
- Management 'buy-in'
Any whistleblowing hotline, training and communications to employees must be acknowledged as important to the financial and reputational health of the organisation; and any resultant reports treated fairly, without bias, and most importantly, without retaliation to the whistleblower if self-identified or if circumstances identify them.
- Extends into supply chains and networks
Third-party suppliers and partners are often invited to utilise whistleblowing hotlines. This enables the employer to have an even wider view of potential risk.
How to implement a whistleblowing hotline
Many businesses and organisations have their own internal whistleblowing policy and hotlines. They are often managed by their own internal staff - usually by the General Counsel, from the HR department or a specifically designated team.
This presents some trust and confidentiality issues in a potential whistleblowers mind. Is everything they say really confidential? What happens if members of the HR team are also friends with someone who is the focus of a whistleblowing report?
There is also a cost-time-overhead implication. When it comes to such a niche responsibility there are very few people who fully understand how best to implement or maintain a whistleblowing system.
That is why most ethics reporting systems are outsourced to a handful of whistleblowing service providers.
Whistleblowing hotline providers are experts in their field and can advise you on costs, process, implementation, communications, and reporting statistics... and often they can have a confidential hotline up-and-running for you within 24-hours.
For the most common whistleblowing hotline implementation questions Safecall are asked, see our article 'The 10 Most Frequent Whistleblowing Hotline Implementation Questions we get Asked'.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.