Article by Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate, Supreme Court of India and Delhi High Court, Partner & Head of Intellectual Property Laws Division, Vaish Associates Advocates, India

In the realm of money laundering prevention, the concept of property attachment assumes a paramount role. Central to this process is the understanding of "proceeds of crime," a term that carries significant weight within the framework of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA). This article delves into the intricate layers of property attachment, elucidating the multifaceted facets of this process, the safeguards in place, and the intricate procedural mechanisms that safeguard the interests of all stakeholders involved.

The Expansive Definition of "Proceeds of Crime"

The definition of "proceeds of crime" is a cornerstone in the PMLA, encapsulating both property directly obtained through criminal activities linked to scheduled offenses and the value of such property. The reach of this definition1 is far-reaching, extending even to property held outside the country. Remarkably, the act does not merely halt at overseas holdings; it asserts the authority to proceed with property equivalent in value held within the country or abroad. Such comprehensive language reflects a legislative intent to staunchly combat money laundering and confiscate ill-gotten gains for the greater good.

A Symphony of Procedural Safeguards

While the objective is clear, the process of property attachment is meticulously fortified with procedural safeguards that uphold the rights of individuals under investigation. These safeguards stand as pillars of protection, ensuring that due process is meticulously followed. These provisions are not just legalities; they reflect the essence of a just and fair process.

  1. Reasoned Invocation of Powers: The process kicks off with the Director or a designated officer analyzing the materials at hand and recording written reasons to believe that property attachment is warranted. This meticulous step ensures that powers are invoked based on credible grounds.
  2. Frustration of Confiscation Proceedings: The requirement for immediate attachment stems from a concern that non-attachment might undermine subsequent confiscation proceedings. This anticipatory measure underscores the gravity of timely action.
  3. Provisional Nature of Attachment: Importantly, the attachment order is provisional, with a lifespan of 180 days. During this period, it must be confirmed by an independent Adjudicating Authority, instilling an element of checks and balances.
  4. Adjudicating Authority's Role: The order's confirmation rests upon the Adjudicating Authority, which examines all relevant materials, gives a fair hearing, and considers the legitimacy of the provisional attachment.
  5. Release of Attachments: The process recognizes the possibility of wrongful attachments. If the Adjudicating Authority finds no offense of money laundering has occurred or that the property is not involved, it orders the release of the property to the entitled individual.
  6. Appellate Mechanism: Even after the Adjudicating Authority's decision, there's an appellate mechanism in place, with the Appellate Tribunal empowered to confirm, modify, or set aside provisional attachment orders.
  7. High Court Intervention: In case of dissatisfaction, the High Court serves as the final bastion for appeal, evaluating questions of fact and law.

Safeguarding Legitimate Interests

The process is calibrated to distinguish between legitimately earned assets and ill-gotten gains. The Hon'ble Punjab and Haryana High Court in the case of Seema Garg and Ors. vs. The Deputy Director, Directorate of Enforcement2, emphasized the importance of the "link" between the property and the offense, asserting that the "value of such property" does not encompass assets without a direct or indirect connection to the alleged criminal activity. In essence, this reinforces the principle that legitimate assets unrelated to the offense cannot be unjustly labeled as proceeds of crime.

Balancing Justice and Prevention

The comprehensive provisions of property attachment and the associated safeguards epitomize the delicate balancing act that the PMLA seeks to achieve. It aims to counter money laundering effectively while ensuring that individuals' rights are preserved throughout the process. The layers of checks and balances underscore the robustness of the legal framework and its commitment to fairness.

Conclusion: Upholding Integrity Through Procedure

Property attachment under the PMLA represents the intersection of justice and prevention. It's a process that embodies the legislative intent to curtail money laundering while upholding the principles of due process. In this intricate dance between safeguarding legitimate interests and thwarting financial wrongdoing, the system ensures that the rights of individuals are respected at every juncture. As the battle against money laundering wages on, the provisions surrounding property attachment stand as a testament to the harmonious coexistence of justice and integrity within the legal framework.


Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate

Supreme Court of India & Delhi High Court

Email id:

Mobile No.: +91 9810081079



Twitter: @vpdalmia


1. MANU/SC/0924/2022

2. MANU/PH/0204/2020

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