This chapter examines public–private partnership (PPP) development in Kazakhstan from 1991 to the time of writing and reviews evolution of the PPP legislation and approaches used to create a PPP-enabling environment in order to draw lessons for the country's future policy. The chapter describes evolution of the PPP concept in the country and provides analysis of gaps and deficiencies in the current PPP policy and legislation.

Five stages have been identified in the evolution of the government PPP policy:

  • Stage One—PPP legal framework for foreign investors only (1991–1993);
  • Stage Two—Lack of PPP-specific legal framework and "pilot" projects (1994–2005);
  • Stage Three—The formation of legal and institutional frameworks (2006–2015);
  • Stage Four—Active PPP deployment: the focus being on quantity (2016–2018); 
  • Stage Five—Adjustments to the PPP framework: stricter requirements (2019–present).

In addition to discussing what has been accomplished at each stage, the chapter delineates policy goals, provides assessment of progress, and identifies implications for further PPP policy development. The chapter suggests that focusing on the deployment of a larger number of adequately designed infrastructure PPPs at the national level is preferred, while the number of local-level small-scale PPPs should decrease.

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