Article by Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate, Supreme Court of India and Delhi High Court, Partner & Head of Intellectual Property Laws Division, Vaish Associates Advocates, India

Money laundering, a term that reverberates within the corridors of financial institutions and law enforcement agencies, encompasses a multifaceted web of activities that extend far beyond the simple act of disguising the origins of ill-gotten gains. This criminal offense is a tripartite puzzle, entailing a series of intricate components that must coalesce for the offense to be deemed complete. In the backdrop of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act of 2022, the convoluted nature of the offense becomes more pronounced. Delving into its depths, one finds three pivotal elements that must converge: the generation of proceeds of crime, the concealment, possession, acquisition, or use of these tainted funds, and the portrayal of these funds as untarnished assets.

Cracking Open the Components

Unveiling the layers of this offense, the first layer involves the act of generating the proceeds of crime. However, it is crucial to discern that not all proceeds from criminal activities fall under the ambit of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act. The act selectively applies to the generation of money from specific crimes, making it a focused endeavor rather than a blanket cover for all illicit funds.

Moving to the second layer, the offense of money laundering requires an active engagement with the proceeds of crime. This involvement can be either direct or indirect, encompassing attempts, assistance, or even active participation in any process or activity linked to the tainted funds. This layer often involves the intricate act of concealment, where the aim is to shroud the origins of the money, making it appear legitimate. It might also encompass possession, acquisition, or usage of these proceeds. Each thread interwoven into this layer further complicates the narrative, creating an intricate fabric of financial deception.

However, the final layer is perhaps the most intriguing—the transformation of ill-gotten gains into seemingly clean assets. This transformation involves projecting or even claiming these funds as untainted property, a deceptive act aimed at misleading financial systems and authorities. This layer serves as a culmination point, where the labyrinthine process of money laundering converges, presenting a facade of legitimacy.

Section 3 of PMLA: Deciphering the Offense

A closer inspection of Section 3 of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act reveals the legal foundation of the money laundering offense. This section meticulously delineates the contours of the offense, encapsulating the intricate dance between perpetrators and their ill-gotten gains. The section outlines a comprehensive spectrum of actions, ranging from direct indulgence to indirect assistance, all connected to the proceeds of crime. Whether it's the concealment, possession, acquisition, use, projecting, or claiming of these tainted funds, any engagement in these processes constitutes the offense of money laundering.

Untangling the Explanation

The elucidation provided to the offense adds further clarity, albeit with some complexities. It underscores that a person can be held guilty of money laundering if they indulge directly or indirectly in any process or activity connected to the proceeds of crime. This process is continuous and persists as long as a person enjoys the proceeds of crime, whether through concealment, possession, acquisition, use, projection, or claiming.

Intricacies and Interpretations

While breaking down Section 3, it becomes evident that the offense of money laundering extends to any process or activity linked to the proceeds of crime. Every step, whether it's concealing, possessing, acquiring, using, projecting, or claiming the funds, is a thread in the tapestry of the offense. The use of the term "including" in the provision emphasizes that every aspect is encapsulated within the term "process or activity" connected with the proceeds of crime.

However, judicial interpretation has brought nuances to the surface. The Supreme Court has underscored that the conjunction "and" in Section 3 can be read as "or," highlighting that each process or activity linked to the proceeds of crime, be it projecting or claiming them as untainted property, constitutes an independent offense of money laundering. The offense doesn't hinge on the commission date of the scheduled crime but on the engagement with the proceeds of crime, even if it occurred after the crime was identified as scheduled.


The offense of money laundering is a labyrinthine realm where the boundaries between criminal proceeds and legitimate assets blur. India's Prevention of Money Laundering Act acts as a vigilant sentinel against this financial deceit. From generating proceeds of crime to the intricate dance of concealing, possessing, acquiring, using, projecting, and claiming them, each step paints a vivid picture of the complex dynamics of money laundering. Legal interpretations further enrich the narrative, emphasizing that every aspect linked to the tainted funds constitutes an independent offense. As financial systems and criminals engage in a cat-and-mouse chase, understanding the multifaceted nature of the offense is crucial in developing effective countermeasures.


Vijay Pal Dalmia, Advocate

Supreme Court of India & Delhi High Court

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Mobile No.: +91 9810081079



Twitter: @vpdalmia

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