In the backdrop of India's growth story as a major IT-ITes hub in the last two decades, the Indian data centres industry is now emerging as the next attractive opportunity for investors and developers. In 2022-23, several foreign investors, global majors and Indian corporates have announced investments into setting up data centres or expansion of their current capacities. As of November 2022, the data centre capacity in India was about 770 MW, which is expected to grow significantly in the near future, with Colliers projecting doubling of the data centre stock by 2025.1

Key Drivers for Growth

The demand for data centres in India is being driven by the need for data storage given the Government's Digital India and data localization policies, increased data consumption and 5G roll-out which is expected to enable adoption of data intensive technologies such as internet-of-things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI). While the draft Digital Data Protection Bill, 2022 introduced by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MEITy) on November 18, 2022 proposes to allow limited cross-border transfer of personal data to Government-notified countries on specified terms and conditions, it is expected that the demand for secure storage and processing of personal data within India will continue to grow at a rapid pace. Personal data would still be required to be stored and processed within India in the absence of any exemption granted by the Government.

In addition, Indian users have been increasingly accessing various digital services such as e-commerce, cloud computing and OTT platforms. The e-commerce market in India is expected to grow by five times between 2017-20262 and the Indian public cloud services market is expected to grow by three times in an even shorter period between 2021-20263. Therefore, the need for expansion of the current data capacity is apparent considering that India only has 6% of the global data centre capacity despite having 14% of the global internet users.4

Data Centres Policies

To incentivize investment and develop India's potential as a global data centre hub, the MEITy had issued a draft Data Centre Policy in November 2020 with broad proposals about the strategies for growth of the sector and to enable a favorable ecosystem for operations of the data centres, which included providing infrastructure status to the data centre sector. Following the Finance Minister's announcement in the 2022 budget speech, data centres was granted "infrastructure" status and included in the Harmonized Master List of Infrastructure sub-sectors in October 2022, which should ease bank financing for such projects.

The draft national policy also envisaged that the Central and State Governments would formulate their respective schemes and guidelines detailing the fiscal and non-fiscal incentives to be offered in the sector. While the policy is yet to be implemented at the national level, various Indian states have adopted state data centres policies to attract private investment in this capital and technology intensive sector. These state policies provide for incentives aimed at reducing the upfront and operational costs to be borne by the data centre operators as well as easing the compliance procedures to ensure a conducive investment atmosphere. Further, certain states such as Karnataka, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and Telangana offer a customised package of incentives for investments above specified thresholds.

Financial Incentives

  • Land and Infrastructure: Purchase consideration for acquisition or lease of land is a significant upfront cost in setting up data centres. Further, the associated stamp duty, registration fee and/or conversion charges payable for converting land from agricultural use to industrial use, if applicable, add on to the costs involved in land acquisition. Therefore, in order to attract investment, state data centre policies offer certain relaxations or concessional rates or reimbursement of fees paid in respect of transactions involving land for setting up of data centres. The concessions may also vary among the districts within the state. For instance, subsidies on acquisition of land under the Karnataka data centres policy are available in respect of land outside the Bengaluru Urban district. Additionally, recognizing the costs incurred in relation to municipal building approvals, the policies formulated by Telangana and Odisha provide for rebates on building fees and building plan approval costs.
  • Power: Data centres are a power intensive industry and consequently, incur significant electricity charges and taxes. In order to assure continuous energy supply, most state data centre policies contemplate dual grid power connectivity. The financial incentives typically offered across the states are in the nature of waiver or exemption from electricity duty, electricity tax and/or wheeling or transmission charges for specified periods after operationalisation of the data centre. Further, given the requirement for generator back up in the event of a power outage, certain states such as Telangana and Odisha have offered a subsidy on the fuel required for generators.

Separately, the massive energy utilisation by data centres has led to global concerns regarding the carbon footprint created by them, which has resulted in a push towards usage of renewable energy for their operations. Usage of renewable energy has been specifically incentivised in the form of subsidies by some of the states in their data centre policies apart from the general benefits provided by the Central and State Governments schemes for utilization of renewable energy.

Non-Financial Incentives

  • Building Norms Relaxations: Data centres are specialised structures and regular construction norms applicable to residential and industrial buildings may not be suited to them. Accordingly, several states such as Haryana, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have provided or contemplate special provisions for data centre-related infrastructure, which include exemptions or relaxations from municipal building norms such as floor area ratio, maximum floor height and car parking spaces.
  • Ongoing Compliances: A number of state policies have further sought to reduce the compliance costs for a potential operator by allowing data centre operators to self-certify compliance under various labour legislations such as the Factories Act and the Shops and Establishments Act of the respective states. States such as Haryana, Odisha, Telangana and Uttar Pradesh have categorised data centres as essential service under the relevant state Essential Services Maintenance Act.
  • Approvals Process: Given the intersectional nature of data centres, setting up a data centre requires a number of approvals. The process of obtaining all such approvals may be time consuming and can add to the uncertainty of getting a return on investment. The state policies of Haryana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu seek to provide a single window clearance mechanism for an expedited and timely approvals process.

A comparison of the data centre policies adopted by the Indian states which have received major investments in the data centre sector is set out below:

Land and Infrastructure Power Approvals Labour Law Benefits Others
Haryana State Data Centre Policy 2022
  • 100% stamp duty reimbursement on sale/lease deeds on the first transaction.
  • Property tax at industrial rates.
  • 100% electricity duty exemption for captive consumption and power sourced from grid for 20 years.
  • Power bill reimbursement up to 25% of Net State Goods and Services Tax (SGST) for electricity consumed from Haryana DISCOMs for three years; in lieu of this, data centres to provide hosting facility of equivalent value to the Haryana Government.
  • Single window clearance of the Haryana Enterprise Promotion Board.
  • Construction-related approvals to be issued within 10 working days of acceptance of application.
  • Approvals required for commencement of business to be issued within 15 working days of acceptance of application.
  • Employment generation subsidy of INR 48,000 per year per employee for 10 years for persons bona fide resident in Haryana.
  • 24X7 water supply.
  • Right of way for optical fibre cables connecting data centres.
  • 50%-75% Net SGST reimbursement for 10 years.
Karnataka Data Centre Policy 2022
  • 10% subsidy on purchase/lease of land up to 10 acres outside Bengaluru Urban district, subject to a maximum subsidy of INR 30,000,000 or 10% of the total land cost, whichever is lower.
  • 100% stamp duty exemption and concessional registration charges for land up to 10 acres outside Bengaluru Urban district (unless specified otherwise).
  • 100% exemption of land conversion fees for land outside Bengaluru Urban district.
  • 100% electricity duty exemption for five years.
  • Data centres with minimum 30% green energy component in total power consumption eligible for industrial power tariff.
  • Data centres using energy from renewable sources above 50% will be re-imbursed INR 0.50 surcharge per unit for 5 years, capped at INR 1.25 crore.
  • Karnataka Udyog Mitra, Department of Commerce and Industries to act as single window agency for clearance of data centre proposals, including for clearance of power supply, through its online portal.
  • Self-certification under applicable labour legislations.
  • Data centres to be exempt from applicability of Karnataka Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Rules, 1946 for five years.
  • 24X7 water supply.
  • Data centres to be treated as IT/ITeS entities entitled to incentives offered under relevant IT policies.
  • One-time 7% capital subsidy up to INR 100,000,000 on value of fixed assets (excluding land and building) outside Bengaluru Urban district.
  • Special package of incentives to be customised for investments above INR 4,000 crore on a case-to-case basis.

Maharashtra (Maharashtra IT/ITES Policy 2015)*

*Data centres with minimum 10,000 square feet and 750 kVA power, within 2 years of operation and designed for tier 2 and above level certification by an independent agency are eligible under this policy.

  • Stamp Duty exemption.
  • Property tax at residential rates.
  • Electricity duty exemption.
  • Continuous industry status; permitted to work 24x7x365 without any stoppages.
  • Exemption from any tax levied for import of capital goods and raw material for self-consumption.
Odisha (Odisha State Data Centre Policy 2022)
  • Land at concessional rates offered by Odisha Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation.
  • 100% stamp duty exemption on first transaction and 50% exemption on second transaction.
  • 100% reimbursement of land conversion charges.
  • Upto 50% reimbursement of building fees and building plan approval cost, subject to a maximum of INR 200,000 per unit.
  • For data centres, 100% exemption on electricity duty and electrical inspection fee up to a contract demand of 5 MVA for a period of 10 years and industrial power tariff.
  • For data centre parks, 100% reimbursement of electricity duty.
  • Power bill subsidy of 30% for five years, subject to a cap INR 2 crore.
  • Reimbursement of 75% of energy audit cost, subject to a cap of INR 200,000.
  • 100% reimbursement of transmission and wheeling charges for power consumption from captive renewable energy plant within Odisha.
  • 25% subsidy (by way of reimbursement) on cleaner/ greener initiatives/production measures, subject to a maximum of INR 1 crore.
  • 100% (for Odisha domiciled employees) or 50% (for other direct employees) reimbursement of employer contribution on account of ESI/EPF for 5 years.
  • One time recruitment assistance for hiring employees domiciled in Odisha, women, SC/ST and disabled persons, reimbursement of training expenses and fee paid for obtaining industry recognized skill certifications.
  • Exemptions from certain provisions of Factories Act, Shops and Commercial Establishments Act and Industrial Disputes Act.
  • Three shift operations allowed, subject to self-certification.
  • 100% reimbursement of Net SGST paid in cash on its outward supplies of goods and services for eligible units.
  • Other subsidies include (i) interest subsidy of 5% of term loan from banks/financial Institutions limited to INR 25 crore for seven years; (ii) infrastructure development subsidy of 25% of fixed capital investment (FCI) in building and state-of-the-art infrastructure (excluding land cost) limited to INR 10 crore; (iii) capital subsidy of 20% of fixed FCI (excluding land cost), subject to INR 25 crore per unit; and (iv) reimbursement of 25% of internet bandwidth/ leased line/fiber connectivity charges subject to INR 2,500,000 per unit for three years.
Tamil Nadu Data Centre Policy 2021
  • Data centre parks allotted land by Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT), State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu (SIPCOT) and Tamil Nadu Small Industries Development Corporation Limited (SIDCO) permitted to sub-lease land/buildings to data centre units without any sublease or transfer charges.
  • For purchase /lease of land from ELCOT/ SIPCOT/ SIDCO, 50% stamp duty concession in Category A and Category B districts and 100% stamp duty exemption in Category C districts (district categorization as per Tamil Nadu Industrial Policy 2021).
  • For lease/purchase of private land within three years before commencement of operations, stamp duty concession to be disbursed after full investment of INR 500 crore for up to 10 acres.
  • Data centre with investment above INR 500 crore and which consume at least 30% energy from renewable sources eligible for industrial tariffs and 100% subsidy of electricity tax on power purchased from the Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Limited or generated and consumed from captive sources for five years.
  • Single window portal for processing multiple approvals required from different departments.
  • Self-certification under applicable labour legislations.
  • Three shift operations allowed, subject to adequate security arrangements.
  • Training subsidy of up to INR 10,000 per person trained per month (for up to 6 months) per data centre unit, subject to a cap of INR 10,000,000 per data centre.
  • For investments greater than eligible fixed assets of INR 2,000 crore, a structured package of assistance would be provided on a case-to-case basis.
Telangana Data Centres Policy 2016
  • Land offered at subsidized cost.
  • Up to 50% rebate on building fees.
  • 25% subsidy on lease rentals up to INR 500,000 per annum for three years.
  • Data centres permitted to avail renewable energy under open access system from within the state after paying fixed cost component to DISCOMs (subject to maximum of one third of their total power requirements).
  • Applications related to building permissions and generation of power through captive sources (solar or wind) covered under single window clearance system of the State Government.
  • Self-certification under applicable labour legislations.
  • Three shift operations allowed.
  • 25% reimbursement on internet charges up to a maximum of INR 250,000 per year for the first three years.
  • Reimbursement of cost of filing and processing a patent application, subject to a cap of INR 200,000 per Indian patent and INR 1,000,000 for foreign patent.
Uttar Pradesh (Uttar Pradesh Data Centre Policy 2021, as amended in November 2022)
  • 100% stamp duty exemption on first transaction and 50% exemption on second transaction.
  • 25% to 50% subsidy on prevailing sector rates on purchase/lease of land from state agencies, subject to a cap of 7.5% of the total project cost or INR 75 crore, whichever is lower.
  • 100% electricity duty exemption for 10 years.
  • Exemption of 50% (in case of intrastate sale of power) or 100% (in case of interstate sale of power) on wheeling / transmission charges for 25 years from project commissioning.
  • 100% exemption for transmission charges on intrastate system for import of energy from outside the state for five years.

  • Self-certification under applicable labour legislations.
  • Three shift operations allowed, subject to adequate security arrangements.
  • 24X7 water supply.
  • Up to 7% capital subsidy up to INR 20 crore on FCI (excluding land and building).
  • In case of data centre parks, interest subsidy up to 60% of annual interest for seven years, subject to INR 10 crore per year with an overall ceiling of INR 50 crore per data centre park.
West Bengal Data Centre Policy 2021
  • 100% exemption from stamp duty and registration fees.
  • Electricity duty waiver on actual consumption for five years.
  • Self-certification under specified statutes (to be notified).
  • Three shift operations to be allowed, subject to self-certification.
  • 24X7 water supply.
  • Right of way for underground optical fibre networks connecting data centres.

While the data centre site selection will depend on factors such as geographical location, proximity to undersea and fiber optic cables and high volume data generating areas such as IT hubs, access to power, availability of skilled workforce and feasibility of general construction and operations, the incentives offered under the various state data centres policies will also play a key role in the choice of location of the data centres.

Opportunities for India

The remarkable proliferation of data centres in India, in light of the continuing rise in data usage, has created growth opportunities in various sectors of the Indian economy.

  • Real Estate: Data centres have become a distinct real-estate sub-sector, with more than 500 acres of land being acquired in India in 2022 for construction of new data centres.5 In aggregate, India's data centre stock as of November 2022, spanned 10.3 million square feet, which is predicted to double up to 20 million square feet by 2025.6 The construction of the data centres itself is a specialised sector which can spur job creation in the country across skill levels.
  • Manufacturing: The draft Data Centre Policy 2020 seeks to promote domestic manufacturing of data centres related products (IT as well as non-IT) by incentivizing usage of domestic hardware and equipment. It also proposes to provide incentives for the global equipment manufacturers to set up manufacturing units in India. This is intended to lead to increase in domestic value addition and reduce dependence on imported equipment for data centres.
  • Renewable Energy: The global and national focus on clean energy has encouraged data centre operators to pivot towards renewable energy with some striving to establish carbon neutral facilities. The growing demand for data centres together with climate change concerns will necessitate that the upcoming facilities increasingly rely on renewable energy, incentivizing investment in alternative energy sources, including for captive power plants.


In the spirit of competitive federalism, the data centres policies framed by various states have sought to address the myriad concerns which an investor in the sector may have subject to the needs and capacities of the relevant state. Given that the draft national data centres policy has been in the public domain for more than two years, the MEITy may consider updating and releasing an operational national policy that supplements the state policies factoring in subsequent developments, including the Government's focus on renewable energy and data security.


1. Data centers: Scaling up in the green age, Colliers, November 2022, available at

2. E-Commerce in India, Lok Sabha reference note, January 2021, available at

3. India Public Cloud Services Market to Grow at a CAGR of 23.1% for 2021-26, International Data Corporation, December 1, 2022, available at

4. Under the lens: India's data center explosion, Binswanger Anarock, August 2022, available at

5. India is expected to add around 250 MW Data Centre Capacity, Savills India, January 2023, available at

6. Data centers: Scaling up in the green age, Colliers, November 2022, available at

This insight/article is intended only as a general discussion of issues and is not intended for any solicitation of work. It should not be regarded as legal advice and no legal or business decision should be based on its content.