A. Classification under the Companies Act
Categories of Directors
The Companies Act refers to the following two specific categories of Directors:
1. Managing Directors; and
2. Whole-time Directors.
A Managing Director is a Director who has substantial powers of management of the affairs of the company subject to the superintendence, control and direction of the Board in question. A Whole-time Director includes a Director who is in the whole-time employment of the company, devotes his whole-time of working hours to the company in question and has a significant personal interest in the company as his source of income.
Every public company and private company, which is a subsidiary of a public company, having a share capital of more than Five Crore rupees (Rs. 5,00,00,000/-) must have a Managing or Whole-time Director or a Manager.
Further classification of Directors
Based on the circumstances surrounding their appointment, the Companies Act recognizes the following further types of Directors:
1. First Directors: Subject to any regulations in the Articles of a company, the subscribers to the Memorandum of Association, or the company's charter or constitution ("Memorandum"), shall be deemed to be the Directors of the company, until such time when Directors are duly appointed in the annual general meeting ("AGM").
2. Casual vacancies: Where a Director appointed at the AGM vacates office before his or her term of office expires in the normal course, the resulting vacancy may, subject to the Articles, be filled by the Board. Such person so appointed shall hold office up to the time which the Director who vacated office would have held office if he or she had not so vacated such office.
3. Additional Directors: If the Articles specifically so provide or enable, the Board has the discretion, where it feels it necessary and expedient, to appoint Additional Directors who will hold office until the next AGM. However, the number of Directors and Additional Directors together shall not exceed the maximum strength fixed in the Articles for the Board.
4. Alternate Director: If so authorized by the Articles or by a resolution passed by the company in general meeting, the Board may appoint an Alternate Director to act for a Director ("Original Director"), who is absent for whatever reason for a minimum period of three months from the State in which the meetings of the Board are ordinarily held. Such Alternate Director will hold office until such period that the Original Director would have held his or her office. However, any provision for automatic re-appointment of retiring Directors applies to the Original Director and not to the Alternate Director.
5. 'Shadow' Director: A person, who is not appointed to the Board, but on whose directions the Board is accustomed to act, is liable as a Director of the company, unless he or she is giving advice in his or her professional capacity. Thus, such a 'shadow' Director may be treated as an 'officer in default' under the Companies Act.
6. De facto Director: Where a person who is not actually appointed as a Director, but acts as a Director and is held out by the company as such, such person is considered as a de facto Director. Unlike a 'shadow' Director, a de facto Director purports to act, and is seen to the outside world as acting, as a Director of the company. Such a de facto Director is liable as a Director under the Companies Act.
7. Rotational Directors: At least two-thirds of the Directors of a public company or of a private company subsidiary of a public company have to retire by rotation and the term "rotational Director" refers to such Directors who have to retire (and may, subject to the Articles, be eligible for re-appointment) at the end of his or her tenure.
8. Nominee Directors: They can be appointed by certain shareholders, third parties through contracts, lending public financial institutions or banks, or by the Central Government in case of oppression or mismanagement. The extent of a nominee Director's rights and the scope of supervision by the shareholders, is contained in the contract that enables such appointments, or (as appropriate) the relevant statutes applicable to such public financial institution or bank. However, nominee Directors must be particularly careful not to act only in the interests of their nominators, but must act in the best interests of the company and its shareholders as a whole.The fixing of liabilities on nominee Directors in India does not turn on the circumstances of their appointment or, indeed, who nominated them as Directors. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 that follow set out certain duties and liabilities that apply to, or can be affixed on, Directors in general. Whether nominee Directors are required by law to discharge such duties or bear such liabilities will depend on the application of the legal provisions in question, the fiduciary duties involved and whether such nominee Director is to be regarded as being in control or in charge of the company and its activities. This determination ultimately turns on the specific facts and circumstances involved in each case.
B. Classification under the Listing Agreement
The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956, read with the rules and regulations made thereunder, requires every company desirous of listing its shares on a recognized Indian stock exchange, to execute a listing agreement ("Agreement") with such Indian stock exchange. This Agreement is in a standard format (prescribed by the Securities Exchange Board of India ("SEBI")), as amended by SEBI from time to time. The Agreement provides for the following further categories of Directors:
Categories under Listing Agreement
1. Executive Director;
2. Non-executive Director; and
3. Independent Director.
Executive and non-executive Directors
An Executive Director can be either a Whole-time Director of the company (i.e., one who devotes his whole time of working hours to the company and has a significant personal interest in the company as his source of income), or a Managing Director (i.e., one who is employed by the company as such and has substantial powers of management over the affairs of the company subject to the superintendence, direction and control of the Board). In contrast, a non-executive Director is a Director who is neither a Whole-time Director nor a Managing Director. Clause 49 of the Agreement prescribes that the Board shall have an optimum combination of executive and non-executive Directors, with not less than fifty percent (50%) of the Board comprising non-executive Directors. Where the Chairman of the Board is a non-executive Director, at least one-third of the Board should comprise independent Directors and in case he is an executive Director, at least half of the Board should comprise independent Directors. Where the non-executive Chairman is a promoter of the company or is related to any promoter or person occupying management positions at the Board level or at one level below the Board, at least one-half of the Board of the company shall consist of independent Directors.
The Agreement defines an "Independent Director" as a non-executive Director of the company who:
a. apart from receiving Director's remuneration, does not have material pecuniary relationships or transactions with the company, its promoters, its Directors, its senior management, or its holding company, its subsidiaries, and associates which may affect independence of the Director;
b. is not related to promoters or persons occupying management positions at the board level or at one level below the board;
c. has not been an executive of the company in the immediately preceding three (3) financial years;
d. is not a partner or an executive or was not a partner or an executive during the preceding three (3) years, of any of the following:
- the statutory audit firm or the internal audit firm that is associated with the company, and
- the legal firms and consulting firms that have a material association with the company;
e. is not a material supplier, service provider or customer or a lessor or lessee of the company, which may affect the independence of the Director; or
f. he is not a substantial shareholder of the company, i.e., owning two percent (2%) or more of the block of voting shares; and
g. he is not less than twenty-one (21) years of age.
Nominee directors appointed by an institution that has invested in, or lent money to, the company are also treated as independent Directors.
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