A 20-year old man from Curlewis, around 400 km north west of Sydney, has been charged with multiple criminal offences after a traffic stop in Telarah, 170 km north of Sydney, which occurred at around 8.40pm on Sunday, 21 June 2020.
Police allege that a sergeant from the Port Stephens-Hunter Local Area Command pulled over a silver Ford hatchback after observing it driving in a dangerous manner.
Police say a male passenger then exited the vehicle and attempted to block the sergeant's view of the driver.
The driver then allegedly exited the vehicle and pushed the sergeant to the chest, before being told he was under arrest.
The passenger then allegedly came between the driver and sergeant, before the driver punched the sergeant to the left side of the face.
The driver and passenger then allegedly fled the scene, before two officers observed the driver attempting to jump a fence in a railway corridor.
Police say that while trying to arrest the man, he punched a constable several times to the neck and shoulder.
A senior constable then followed the man over the fence before allegedly also being punched.
The alleged driver was eventually arrested and charged with:
- Assaulting a police officer in execution of duty causing actual bodily harm,
- Two counts of assaulting a police officer in execution of duty,
- Two counts of resisting a police officer in execution of duty,
- Escaping lawful custody,
- Driving whilst under the influence of alcohol, and
- Driving without a licence.
The sergeant was taken to John Hunter Hospital for treatment of a suspected fractured eye socket, while the constable and senior constable admitted to Maitland Hospital for minor cuts and soft tissue damage.
All officers have since been discharged.
The driver is facing Maitland Local Court while the passenger remains at large.
The offence of assaulting police officers in NSW
Section 60 Crimes Act 1900
The most frequently prosecuted offences are contained in section 60, which criminalises six discrete forms of conduct towards police officers who are acting 'in the execution of their duty'.
Section 601 makes it an offence punishable by up to 5 years' imprisonment to assault, throw a missile at, stalk, harass or intimidate such an officer.
In order to prove the offence, the prosecution must establish beyond a reasonable doubt that:
- The victim was a police officer,
- The victim was acting in the execution of his or her duty, and
- The accused assaulted, threw a missile at, stalked, harassed or intimidated the victim.
These are called the 'essential elements' (or ingredients) of the offence.
Section 60(1A) prescribes a maximum penalty of 7 years' imprisonment for assaulting a police officer during a 'public disorder'.
To be found guilty, the prosecution must prove the conduct occurred during a 'public disorder', in addition to the 3 elements listed above. A public disorder is defined as "a riot or other civil disturbance that gives rise to a serious risk to public safety".
Section 602 sets a maximum penalty of 7 years' imprisonment for assaulting a police officer and thereby occasioning 'actual bodily harm'.
The offence also carries what is known as a 'standard non parole period' (or SNPP). A SNPP is a reference point or guidepost for a sentencing judge when determining the minimum time a person should spend behind bars before being eligible for release on parole. The SNPP for offences under section 602 is 3 years imprisonment.
To be found guilty of the offence, the prosecution must prove the occasioning of actual bodily harm in addition to the 3 elements listed above.
'Actual bodily harm' is that which is "more than merely transient or trifling"; R v Donovan  2 KB 498. It does not need to be a permanent injury, and may include bruising, and scratches or marks which do not subside within a short space of time.
Psychiatric injury beyond transient emotions such as fear and panic may amount to actual bodily harm; R v Chan-Fook  1 WLR 91.
Section 60(2A) prescribes a maximum penalty of 9 years' imprisonment for assaulting a police officers and causing actual bodily harm during a 'public disorder'.
Section 603 sets a maximum penalty of 12 years' imprisonment for recklessly wounding or causing grievous bodily harm to a police officer. The offence also carries an SNPP of 5 years' imprisonment.
To establish the offence, the prosecution must prove that:
- The victim was a police officer,
- The victim was acting in the execution of his or her duty,
- The accused wounded or inflicted grievous bodily harm on the victim, and
- The accused did this recklessly.
A "wound' is an injury which involves breaking or cutting the interior layer of the skin (the dermis); R v Smith (1837) 8 C & P 173. Breaking the outer layer of skin (eg through a scratch) or internal bleeding will not by itself amount to a wound for the purposes of the law; R v Shepherd  NSWCCA 351. However, a 'split lip' will suffice; R v Hooper  NSWCCA 10.
"Grievous bodily harm" is defined by the common law as 'really serious harm'; DPP v Smith  AC 290.
Section 4 of the Crimes Act makes it clear that such harm includes:
(a) the destruction of the foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure),
(b) any permanent or serious disfiguring, and
(c) any grievous bodily disease.
However, this is by no means an exhaustive list. The Public Defenders Sentencing Tables provide a helpful list of injuries found by the courts to be grievous; including broken bones, damage to internal organs, and skull and brain damage.
An act is done "recklessly" where the person foresees the possibility of the infliction of the resulting harm yet proceeds to commit the act regardless; Blackwell v R  NSWCCA 93.
And finally, section 60(3A) prescribes a maximum penalty of 14 years' imprisonment for recklessly wounding or causing grievous bodily harm to a police officer during a public disorder (previously defined).
Section 58 Crimes Act 1900
Section 58 of the Crimes Act sets out the offence of 'Assault with intent to commit a serious indictable offence on certain officers'.
The offence is broad in both application and scope. It applies to a range of people, including "a constable, or other peace officer, custom-house officer, prison officer, sheriff's officer, or bailiff, or person acting in aid of such officer".
It makes it an offence punishable by up to 5 years' imprisonment to assaulting, resist, or wilfully obstruct such a person.
It is important to note that the maximum penalty for all of the above offences when they are finalised in the Local Court is 2 years' imprisonment.
Meaning of 'in the execution of duty'
An essential ingredient of each of the above offences is that the officer is acting in execution of his or her duty.
In that regard, it has been found that a police officer is so acting from the moment he or she embarks upon a lawful task connected with his or her functions as a police officer, provided he or she is not doing something outside the ambit of his or her duty; R v K (1993) 118 ALR 596.
It is not necessary for the prosecution to prove the defendant knew the alleged victim was an officer on duty; R v Reynhoudt (1962) 107 CLR 381.
In addition to this, section 604 stipulates that an action is taken to be undertaken in the course of the police officer's duty even though the officer is not on duty at the time, if it is carried out:
- As a consequence of, or in retaliation for, actions carried out by that officer in the execution of his or duty, or
- By virtue of the fact the alleged victim is a police officer.
Naturally, the prosecution will fail to prove the offence if it is unable to establish any of the essential elements beyond reasonable doubt.
In addition to this, there a number of legal defences which may be raised against allegations of assaulting police.
Where there is evidence of a defence, the prosecution will be required to negative that defence beyond a reasonable doubt-in other words, prove to the required standard that the evidence does not support such a defence.
Section 418 of the Crimes Act provides that a person is not guilty of a criminal offence (except where death is inflicted to protect property) if he or she "believes the conduct is necessary:
(a) to defend himself or herself or another person, or
(b) to prevent or terminate the unlawful deprivation of his or her liberty or the liberty of another person, or
(c) to protect property from unlawful taking, destruction, damage or interference, or
(d) to prevent criminal trespass to any land or premises or to remove a person committing any such criminal trespass,
and the conduct is a reasonable response in the circumstances as he or she perceives them."
So, for example, a person is not guilty of assaulting police if the officers were applying excessive physical force during an arrest and the arrestee believed lashing out was the only way to stop the assault or protect themselves from injury, provided the conduct was a reasonable response to the situation as the arrestee perceived the situation.
A far less common defence is 'necessity', which is where a situation of "immediate peril" causes a person to act in such a way as to avoid serious consequences. Like self-defence, the act must be "reasonable and proportionate to the situation".
Another available defence is 'duress', which relates to certain situations where a person is threatened or intimidated into committing an offence against their will.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.