Zambia has a democratic system of governance that recognises constitutional supremacy. The Constitution establishes the Judiciary, the Legislature and the Executive as the three (3) independent and separate arms of Government.

Political history

Zambia has had a stable political history since it gained independence from British rule on 24 October 1964. Between 1953 and 1964, Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia and formed part of the federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland with present day Zimbabwe and Malawi respectively.

Zambia has had four (4) government administrations under different political parties as follows:

1964 - 1991: United National Independence Party led by Dr. Kenneth Kaunda;

1991 - 2011: Movement for Multi-Party Democracy;

2011 - 2021: Patriotic Front; and

2021 - present: United Party for National Development.

Since 1991, general presidential and parliamentary elections have been held every five (5) years.


Mining is the backbone of Zambia's economy, accounting for approximately seventy (70) per cent of its export earnings. Copper is Zambia's main export. Zambia is Africa's second largest producer of copper. Other key economic sectors are agriculture, tourism, energy and manufacturing.

Zambia has a population of just under twenty (20) million and has one of the youngest populations in the world by median age.

In 2021, Zambia's GDP was USD 21 billion with an average GDP growth rate of 3.6 percent (as at 2021).[1]

Economic performance expanded from a negative growth of 2.8 percent in 2020 to 3.6 percent in 2021 and is expected to have an average GDP growth projected at 2.8 percent between 2021 and 2023.[2] The positive economic outlook is under-pinned by the increasing demand for copper and the continued growth of the tourism and manufacturing industries, as well as an advancing manufacturing, energy, wholesale and retail trade and ICT sector.


1 Eighth National Development Plan (2022 - 2026)


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