This week's TGIF considers In the matter of Nicolas Criniti Pty Ltd (In Liquidation)  [2022] NSWSC 1149 which examined the intersection between the winding up provisions in the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) and the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act 1999  (NSW).

Key takeaways

  • The Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act 1999 (NSW) (SOP Act) creates a distinct procedure for enforcing a statutory entitlement to progress payments for work under construction contracts.
  • A legally enforceable debt under the SOP Act will only be provable in a winding up when an adjudication determination is delivered.
  • The 'relevant date' for the admissibility of proof of debts and claims against a company is the day on which the winding up began. If a company was under voluntary administration before being wound up, the winding up is taken to have begun on the day on which the administration began.

What happened?

On 16 May 2017, a builder (the Builder) was retained by Nicolas Criniti Pty Ltd (the Company) to construct a residential apartment block in Sydney. Two years later, the Builder made a claim for a progress payment under the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act 1999  (NSW). When the Company responded with a nil payment schedule, the builder made an adjudication application under the SOP Act.

Before the adjudication application could be determined, the Company appointed voluntary administrators and was then wound up at the second creditors' meeting. While under administration, the adjudicator issued a determination in favour of the builder in the amount of $927,727.80.

The Builder subsequently lodged a proof of debt in the liquidation for the amount stated in the determination. However, this was rejected by the liquidator who indicated that there was no 'statutory debt' under the SOP Act admissible to proof against the Company at the relevant point in time (being the date the administrators were appointed).

The builder appealed this decision by commencing proceedings in the NSW Supreme Court.

The competing positions

The question for determination by the Court was whether the circumstances giving rise to the debt had arisen before the appointment of voluntary administrators.

The Builder relied on section 8 of the SOP Act which provides that a person who, under a construction contract, has undertaken to carry out construction work or to supply related goods and services is entitled to receive a progress payment. It was submitted that entry into the construction contract itself gave rise to the debt and the SOP Act simply quantified the amount payable.

Moreover, it was contended by the Builder that the circumstances giving rise to the debt included the steps which preceded the adjudication determination (that is, the payment claim and the application for adjudication). Each of these steps occurred before the appointment of the administrators.

The liquidator's position was that the circumstances giving rise to the debt under the SOP Act was the adjudication determination alone and, given that was delivered after the administrators were appointed, there was no legally enforceable debt provable in the winding up pursuant to section 553(1) of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) (the Corporations Act).

The decision

The Court rejected the Builder's submissions and dismissed the appeal. In reaching this conclusion, his Honour observed the case raised a significant question concerning the intersection of the winding up provisions in the Corporations Act and the SOP Act.

Relevantly, his Honour noted that:

  • where there is a payment schedule under the SOP Act, the amount in dispute must be the subject of an adjudication determination to give rise to an enforceable debt;
  • the service of a payment claim and the making of an adjudication application are pre-conditions to the making of an adjudication determination, not circumstances which give rise to the debt; and
  • the determination itself is the source of the debt.

Notwithstanding the findings above, his Honour made it clear that the Builder's rights under the construction contract itself were preserved and any claim in respect of those rights was provable under section 553(1) of the Corporations Act. The decision in this case dealt solely with the enforcement of the statutory right created by the SOP Act.


Given the current challenges facing the construction industry in Australia, it is likely that we will continue to see an increase in insolvencies in the sector. In light of this, the Court's decision in this case provides timely guidance to insolvency practitioners and their advisers as to when a payment claim under the SOP Act will crystallise as an enforceable debt and thus be provable in a winding up.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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