The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights (OCR) will soon begin a second phase of audits (Phase 2 Audits) of compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) privacy, security and breach notification standards (HIPAA Standards) as required by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Unlike the pilot audits during 2011 and 2012 (Phase 1 Audits), which focused on covered entities, OCR will conduct Phase 2 Audits of both covered entities and business associates. The Phase 2 Audit Program will focus on areas of greater risk to the security of protected health information (PHI) and pervasive noncompliance based on OCR's Phase I Audit findings and observations, rather than a comprehensive review of all of the HIPAA Standards. The Phase 2 Audits are also intended to identify best practices and uncover risks and vulnerabilities that OCR has not identified through other enforcement activities. OCR will use the Phase 2 Audit findings to identify technical assistance that it should develop for covered entities and business associates. In circumstances where an audit reveals a serious compliance concern, OCR may initiate a compliance review of the audited organization that could lead to civil money penalties.
The following sections summarize OCR's Phase 1 Audit findings, describe the Phase 2 Audit program and identify steps that covered entities and business associates should take to prepare for the Phase 2 Audits.
Phase 1 Audit Findings
OCR audited 115 covered entities under the Phase 1 Audit program, with the following aggregate results:
- There were no findings or observations for only 11% of the covered entities audited;
- Despite representing just more than half of the audited entities (53%), health care providers were responsible for 65% of the total findings and observations;
- The smallest covered entities were found to struggle with compliance under all three of the HIPAA Standards;
- Greater than 60% of the findings or observations were Security Standard violations, and 58 of 59 audited health care provider covered entities had at least one Security Standard finding or observation even though the Security Standards represented only 28% of the total audit items;
- Greater than 39% of the findings and observations related to the Privacy Standards were attributed to a lack of awareness of the applicable Privacy Standard requirement; and
- Only 10% of the findings and observations were attributable to a lack of compliance with the Breach Notification Standards
The Phase 2 Audit Program
Selection of Phase 2 Audit Recipients
Unlike the Phase 1 Audit Program, which focused on covered entities, OCR will conduct Phase 2 Audits of both covered entities and business associates. OCR has randomly selected a pool of 550–800 covered entities through the National Provider Identifier database and America's Health Insurance Plans' databases of health plans and health care clearinghouses. OCR will issue a mandatory pre-audit screening survey to the pool of covered entities this summer. The survey will address organization size measures, location, services and contact information. Based on the responses, the agency will select approximately 350 covered entities, including 232 health care providers, 109 health plans and 9 health care clearinghouses, for Phase 2 Audits. OCR intends to select a wide range of covered entities and will conduct the audits between October 2014 and June 2015.
OCR will notify and send data requests to the 350 selected covered entities this fall. The data requests will ask the covered entities to identify and provide contact information for their business associates. OCR will select the business associates that will participate in the Phase 2 Audits from this pool.
OCR will audit approximately 150 of the 350 selected covered entities and 50 of the selected business associates for compliance with the Security Standards, 100 covered entities for compliance with the Privacy Standards and 100 covered entities for compliance with the Breach Notification Standards. OCR will initiate the Phase 2 Audits of covered entities by sending the data requests this fall and then initiate the Phase 2 Audits of business associates in 2015.
Covered entities and business associates will have two weeks to respond to OCR's audit request. The data requests will specify the content, file names and other documentation requirements, and the auditors may contact the covered entities and business associates for clarifications or additional documentation. OCR will only consider current documentation that is submitted on time. Failure to respond to a request could lead to a referral to the applicable OCR Regional Office for a compliance review.
Unlike the Phase 1 Audits, OCR will conduct the Phase 2 Audits as desk reviews with an updated audit protocol and not on-site at the audited organization. OCR will make the Phase 2 Audit protocol available on its website so that entities may use it for internal compliance assessments.
The Phase 2 Audits will target HIPAA Standards that were sources of high numbers of non-compliance in the Phase 1 Audits, including: risk analysis and risk management; content and timeliness of breach notifications; notice of privacy practices; individual access; Privacy Standards' reasonable safeguards requirement; training to policies and procedures; device and media controls; and transmission security. OCR also projects that Phase 2 Audits in 2016 will focus on the Security Standards' encryption and decryption requirements, facility access control, breach reports and complaints, and other areas identified by earlier Phase 2 Audits. Phase 2 Audits of business associates will focus on risk analysis and risk management and breach reporting to covered entities.
OCR will present the organization with a draft audit report to allow management to comment before it is finalized. OCR will then take into account management's response and issue a final report.
What Should You Do to Prepare for the Phase 2 Audits?
Covered entities and business associates should take the following steps to ensure that they are prepared for a potential Phase 2 Audit:
- Confirm that the organization has recently completed a comprehensive assessment of potential security risks and vulnerabilities to the organization (the Risk Assessment);
- Confirm that all action items identified in the Risk Assessment have been completed or are on a reasonable timeline to completion;
- Ensure that the organization has a complete inventory of business associates for purposes of the Phase 2 Audit data requests;
- If the organization has not implemented any of the Security Standards' addressable implementation standards for any of its information systems, confirm that the organization has documented (i) why any such addressable implementation standard was not reasonable and appropriate and (ii) all alternative security measures that were implemented;
- Ensure that the organization has implemented a breach notification policy that accurately reflects the content and deadline requirements for breach notification under the Breach Notification Standards;
- Health care provider and health plan covered entities should ensure that they have a compliant Notice of Privacy Practices and not only a website privacy notice;
- Ensure that the organization has reasonable and appropriate safeguards in place for PHI that exists in any form, including paper and verbal PHI;
- Confirm that workforce members have received training on the HIPAA Standards that are necessary or appropriate for a workforce member to perform his/her job duties;
- Confirm that the organization maintains an inventory of information system assets, including mobile devices (even in a bring your own device environment);
- Confirm that all systems and software that transmit electronic PHI employ encryption technology or that the organization has a documented the risk analysis supporting the decision not to employ encryption;
- Confirm that the organization has adopted a facility security plan for each physical location that stores or otherwise has access to PHI, in addition to a security policy that requires a physical security plan; and
- Review the organization's HIPAA security policies to identify any actions that have not been completed as required (e.g., physical security plans, disaster recovery plan, emergency access procedures, etc.)
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.