Switzerland: Einschränkung des Einsichtsrechts bei ungerechtfertigten Betreibungen

Last Updated: 5 November 2018
Article by André Bloch and Jennifer Ehrensperger

Aktuell können grundsätzlich alle Betreibungen beim Betreibungsamt durch Dritte eingesehen werden, sofern sie ein Interesse glaubhaft machen. Aufgrund einer Gesetzesänderung, welche per 1. Januar 2019 in Kraft tritt, kann dieses Einsichtsrecht bei ungerechtfertigten Betreibungen eingeschränkt warden. EINLEITUNG

Die Eintreibung von Geldforderungen wird durch das Schuldbetreibungs- und Konkursgesetz (SchKG) geregelt. Verglichen mit anderen Rechtsordnungen ist es in der Schweiz relativ einfach, ein Betreibungsverfahren anzustrengen, zumal keinerlei Nachweis erbracht werden muss und Betreibungen somit auch völlig grundlos oder gar rechtsmissbräuchlich (sog. Schikanebetreibung) eingeleitet werden können.

Dagegen kann die betriebene Person einen sog. Rechtsvorschlag erheben. Will die betreibende Person die Geldforderung daraufhin tatsächlich eintreiben, muss dieser Rechtsvorschlag innert einem Jahr mittels einer sog. Rechtsöffnung oder einer ordentlichen Klage beseitigt werden.

Unabhängig davon, ob eine Betreibung gerechtfertigt ist oder nicht, also ob die in Betreibung gesetzte Geldforderung tatsächlich geschuldet ist oder nicht, führt die Betreibung jedoch automatisch zu einem Eintrag im Betreibungsregister.

Da dies für die zu Unrecht betriebene Person Nachteile zeitigen kann, wird neu die Einsicht in das Betreibungsregister beschränkt werden können.

II. AKTUELLE RECHTSLAGE

Einsicht nehmen und sich Auszüge aus dem Betreibungsregister geben lassen kann grundsätzlich jede Person, die ein Interesse glaubhaft macht. Dies ist vor allem dann der Fall, wenn das Auskunftsgesuch in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit dem Abschluss oder der Abwicklung eines Vertrages erfolgt (Art. 8a Abs. 1 und 2 SchKG). Keine Auskunft wird erteilt, wenn die Betreibung nichtig ist, sie durch einen gerichtlichen Entscheid oder eine Beschwerde aufgehoben wurde, die betriebene Person mit einer Rückforderungsklage obsiegt hat oder die betreibende Person die Betreibung zurückgezogen hat (Art. 8a Abs. 3 SchKG).

Zieht die betreibende Person die Betreibung nicht zurück, setzt sie sie aber auch nicht fort, bleibt die Betreibung im Betreibungsregister eingetragen und ist unter den zuvor genannten Voraussetzungen während fünf Jahren einsehbar.

Die Löschung einer ungerechtfertigten Betreibung kann die betriebene Person nur durch Erhebung einer negativen Feststellungsklage an das zuständige Gericht oder – bei rechtsmissbräuchlichen Betreibungen – durch Aufsichtsbeschwerde erreichen.

NEUERUNGEN AB DEM

JANUAR 2019

Um die Position von ungerechtfertigt betriebenen Personen zu verbessern, hat die Bundesversammlung am 16. Dezember 2016 beschlossen, das SchKG unter anderem betreffend die Einsicht in das Betreibungsregister anzupassen.

Gemäss dem neuen Art. 8a Abs. 3 lit. d SchKG kann die betriebene Person, welche Rechtsvorschlag erhoben hat, nach Ablauf von drei Monaten seit Zustellung des Zahlungsbefehls das Gesuch stellen, dass Dritten von einer Betreibung keine Kenntnis gegeben wird. Das Betreibungsamt setzt der betreibenden Person danach eine Frist von zwanzig Tagen an, innert derer diese nachweisen muss, dass sie rechtzeitig ein Verfahren zur Beseitigung des Rechtsvorschlags eingeleitet hat. Wird dieser Nachweis nicht erbracht, wird der entsprechende Eintrag im Betreibungsregister Drittpersonen gegenüber nicht mehr angezeigt. Wird der Nachweis erst nachträglich erbracht oder wird die Betreibung fortgesetzt, wird der Eintrag Drittpersonen wieder angezeigt.

Auch nach neuem Recht muss die betriebene Person für die gänzliche Löschung des Betreibungsregistereintrages ein (aufwändiges) Gerichts- bzw. Beschwerdeverfahren anstrengen. Allerdings kann mit der neuen Regelung immerhin erreicht werden, dass bestehende ungerechtfertigte Betreibungen nicht mehr einsehbar sind.

WÜRDIGUNG

Die neue Regelung ist zu begrüssen, da Betreibungen oft grundlos oder lediglich zum Zweck der Verjährungsunterbrechung erhoben werden. Die potentielle Gefahr, dass gerechtfertigte Betreibungen Dritten nicht mehr zur Kenntnis gebracht werden, weil die betreibende Person das Verfahren zur Beseitigung des Rechtsvorschlages nicht rechtzeitig einleitet, ist dagegen aus unserer Sicht vernachlässigbar.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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