Italy: ANAC Cambia Rotta, Il Codice Dei Contratti Pubblici Riguarderà Solo Bandi E Avvisi Pubblicati Dopo Il 20 Aprile 2016

L'ANAC ha mutato opinione: il nuovo Codice dei Contratti Pubblici riguarderà solo bandi e avvisi pubblicati a decorrere dal 20 aprile 2016.

Con un Comunicato del 3 maggio 2016, l'Autorità Nazionale Anticorruzione ("ANAC") cambia direzione rispetto al precedente Comunicato del 22 aprile 2016, sancendo l'applicazione delle nuove disposizioni dettate dal Decreto Legislativo n. 50 del 18 aprile 2016 "Attuazione delle direttive 2014/23/UE, 2014/24/UE e 2014/25/UE sull'aggiudicazione dei contratti di concessione, sugli appalti pubblici e sulle procedure d'appalto degli enti erogatori nei settori dell'acqua, dell'energia, dei trasporti e dei servizi postali, nonché per il riordino della disciplina vigente in materia di contratti pubblici relativi a lavori, servizi e forniture", pubblicato sulla Gazzetta Ufficiale, Serie Generale, n. 91 del 19 aprile 2016, Suppl. Ordinario n. 10, il nuovo Codice dei Contratti Pubblici (il "Codice"), ai soli bandi o avvisi pubblicati a decorrere dal 20 aprile 2016.

1. L'ENTRATA IN VIGORE DELLE NORME SECONDO IL CODICE

L'art. 216, comma 1, del Codice dispone che, fatto salvo quanto previsto nel medesimo articolo 216, ovvero nelle singole disposizioni del Codice, lo stesso si applica alle procedure e ai contratti per i quali i bandi o avvisi con cui si indice la procedura di scelta del contraente siano pubblicati successivamente alla data della sua entrata in vigore nonché, in caso di contratti senza pubblicazione di bandi o di avvisi, alle procedure e ai contratti in relazione ai quali, alla data di entrata in vigore del Codice, non siano ancora stati inviati gli inviti a presentare le offerte.

Il successivo articolo 220 prevede che il Codice entri in vigore il giorno stesso della sua pubblicazione nella Gazzetta Ufficiale, avvenuta il 19 aprile 2016, fatta salva però l'applicazione delle norme transitorie e di coordinamento, di cui all'art. 216 dello stesso Codice.

2. IL I^ COMUNICATO Ministero/ANAC DEL 22 APRILE 2016

Il Ministro delle Infrastrutture e il Presidente dell'ANAC hanno diffuso, in data 22 aprile 2016, un Comunicato congiunto secondo il quale:

  • ricadono nel previgente assetto normativo di cui al D.lgs. 12 aprile 2006, n. 163 e s.m.i.:

    • le procedure di scelta del contraente ed i contratti per i quali i relativi bandi o avvisi siano stati pubblicati in Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana (GURI) ovvero in Gazzetta Ufficiale dell'Unione Europea (GUCE) ovvero nell'albo pretorio del Comune ove si svolgono i lavori, entro la data del 18 aprile 2016;
    • in caso di contratti senza pubblicazione di bandi o avvisi, restano egualmente disciplinate dal D.lgs. 12 aprile 2006, n. 163, le procedure di scelta del contraente in relazione alle quali, alla medesima data del 18 aprile 2016, siano stati inviati gli inviti a presentare offerta;
  • ricadono nella nuova disciplina in materia di contratti pubblici, dettata dal Codice:

    • le procedure ed i contratti per i quali i bandi e gli avvisi con cui si indice la procedura di scelta del contraente siano pubblicati a decorrere dal 19 aprile 2016, data di entrata in vigore del Codice;
    • nei casi di contratti senza pubblicazione di bandi o avvisi, alle procedure di selezione in relazione alle quali i relativi inviti a presentare offerta siano inviati a decorrere dalla data del 19 aprile 2016.

In sostanza, sulla base di tale Comunicato, il Codice troverebbe applicazione anche a tutti gli atti di gara adottati nella giornata del 19 aprile 2016.

Peraltro, il Comunicato imponeva che "Gli atti di gara già adottati dalle amministrazioni, non rientranti nelle ipotesi indicate al punto 1. [entro il 18.04.2016 – n.d.r.], dovranno essere riformulati in conformità al nuovo assetto normativo recato dal decreto legislativo n. 50 del 2016".

3. IL II^ COMUNICATO ANAC DEL 3 MAGGIO 2016

Con un secondo Comunicato del 3 maggio 2016, l'ANAC ha precisato che le disposizioni del Codice sono da ritenersi applicabili a partire dal 20 aprile 2016.

Le ragioni del cambio di posizione rispetto al precedente Comunicato del 22 aprile 2016 sono dovute alle numerose segnalazioni delle stazioni appaltanti che evidenziavano di avere avuto piena conoscenza giuridica delle nuove norme solo dalle ore 22.00 del 19 aprile 2016, orario di pubblicazione del Codice sulla Gazzetta ufficiale.

Recependo tali segnalazioni delle stazioni appaltanti, e previo parere dell'Avvocatura Generale dello Stato, sulla base del principio generale di cui all'art. 11 delle preleggi al Codice Civile (cd. principio di irretroattività della legge) e a tutela della buona fede delle stazioni appaltanti, l'ANAC ha fornito nuove indicazioni rispetto al precedente Comunicato, sancendo che: "con riferimento ai soli bandi o avvisi pubblicati nella giornata del 19 aprile [...] continua ad operare il pregresso regime giuridico, mentre le disposizioni del d.lgs. 50/2016 riguarderanno i bandi e gli avvisi pubblicati a decorrere dal 20 aprile 2016".

Le nuove indicazioni fornite sottraggono quindi dalla scure delle nuove norme del Codice tutte le procedure di gara di qualsiasi tipologia e per qualsiasi importo, pubblicate nella giornata del 19 aprile 2016, assoggettandole alla previgente disciplina, per alcuni istituti (ad. es. massimo ribasso), meno restrittiva.

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