Hungary: 7 astuces pour employeurs avant licenciement en Hongrie

Last Updated: 23 October 2019
Article by Richard Schmidt
Most Read Contributor in Hungary, October 2019

Un licenciement illégal est la cause la plus fréquente des contentieux devant les tribunaux de travail. Dans ce guide, nous résumerons les 7 règles les plus importantes á respecter avant un licenciement en Hongrie afin de réduire les risques d'un licenciement illégal et pour que votre entreprise évite des litiges couteux.

1. La notification de licenciement

En tant qu'employeur, vous pouvez mettre fin à la relation de travail par une notification de licenciement. Il est important de savoir que la notification de licenciement n'est valable que si elle est écrite.

La notification de licenciement de l'employeur doit contenir une cause réelle et sérieuse, excepté pour les cadres et les retraités dont les contrats peuvent être terminés sans justification. La raison du licenciement peut être liée avec les compétences de l'employé, son comportement face à son travail, les raisons opérationnelles de l'employeur (par exemple réorganisation) à l'exception du transfert d'un business. En cas de litige, l'employeur doit justifier le licenciement en expliquant les causes et le caractère raisonnable de celui-ci.

Un conseil pratique : la notification de licenciement doit être reconnue par l'employé. Si l'employé refuse d'accepter la notification de licenciement, vous devez rédiger un procès-verbal avec deux témoins.

2. La protection contre licenciement

Dans certains cas, le Code du travail protège l'employé contre le licenciement. Ainsi le licenciement est exclu si votre employée est enceinte, si elle est en congé maternité ou si elle suit un traitement de procréation assistée.

Un conseil pratique : Avant de notifier le licenciement à l'employé, demandez-lui s'il n'y oppose pas un obstacle. Vous devez notifier la réponse de l'employé dans le procès-verbal.

3. Les coûts de licenciement

L'employeur doit payer le salaire de l'employé pendant la période de préavis du licenciement, et si l'emploi excède 3 années, une indemnité de licenciement doit être payée à l'employé.

Ce tableau montre la longueur de la période de préavis et le montant de l'indemnité en fonction de séniorité de l'employé :

La durée de l'emploi en années (séniorité) La période de préavis L'indemnité de licenciement
0-3 30 jours -
3-5 35 jours 1 mois
5-8 45 jours 2 mois
8-10 50 jours 2 mois
10-15 55 jours 3 mois
15-18 60 jours 4 mois
18-20 70 jours 4 mois
20-25 90 jours 5 mois
25- 90 jours 6 mois

Par ailleurs, si l'employé dispose de congés qu'il n'a pas encore pris, l'employeur doit lui proposer de les poser ou il peut alors l'indemniser

Un conseil pratique : Il fait tenir compte de la possibilité d'une rupture de commun accord pour diminuer les coûts additionnels générés par le licenciement.

4. Le licenciement pour motif grave

L'employé peut être licencié pour motif grave s'il commet délibérément ou avec une extrême négligence une faute grave portant sur une obligation substantielle du contrat de travail ou encore s'il commet un acte qui rend le maintien du contrat de travail impossible.

Le licenciement pour motif grave doit être exercé 15 jours après que l'employé ait pris conscience de la raison du licenciement, mais en tout cas, dans 1 année au maximum après l'apparition de la cause du licenciement.

5. Une rupture de commun accord- si elle est possible

En Hongrie, vous pouvez renvoyer votre employé en signant une rupture de commun accord. C'est la fin du contrat de travail la plus paisible pour les deux parties parce que l'employé partie prenante de l'accord et qu'il n'est pas le simple destinataire de la lettre de licenciement.

La rupture de commun accord rend possible l'assouplissement des règles strictes de la résiliation (par exemple concernant la justification du licenciement, la période de préavis, indemnité, etc.).

Un conseil pratique : La rupture de commun accord est avantageuse pour l'employeur parce que la durée de la période de notification de licenciement et le montant de l'indemnité de licenciement sont négociables avec l 'employé, en plus, le risque de litige peut être réduit dans ce cas.

6. Les détails techniques

A la fin de la relation de travail, l'employeur doit remettre toutes les déclarations et les certificats requis par la loi. Si votre employé en fait la demande, vous devez lui donner une opinion de son travail si la durée de l'emploi a été au moins d'un an.

Un conseil pratique : N'oubliez pas de déclarer la fin de l'emploi à l'autorité fiscale.

7. Le procès

En cas de fin de la relation d'emploi, l'employé peut intenter un procès devant le tribunal de travail contre l'employeur dans 30 jours.

L'employeur est obligé d'informer l'employé de cette possibilité dans la notification de licenciement ou dans la rupture de commun accord.

Il est important de savoir qu'en cas de licenciement illégal, l'employeur doit payer une compensation pour les dommages et la perte de revenu et dans les cas extrêmes (par ex. discrimination) à la demande de l'employé, le tribunal va rétablir la relation d'emploi.

Un conseil pratique : Il faut toujours faire attention à la forme écrite et la justification de la notification de licenciement pour éviter les conséquences d'un licenciement illégal.

Mentions légales: Les informations dans ce document ne sont données qu'à titre d'orientation générale et ne doivent pas être interprétées en tant que conseil juridique. L'information dans ce document ne doit pas remplacer d'un conseil juridique particulier, et son publication ne crée pas une relation avocat-client entre le Bureau d'Avocat et les lecteurs.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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