Malta: Lograr el marco regulatorio de juego ideal

Last Updated: 17 September 2019
Article by Joseph F. Borg and Sofia Maria Cucciniello

La regulación de los juegos de una forma ideal se basa en la premisa de que el juego debe mantenerse libre de la criminalidad, el abuso y la corrupción, proteger a los jugadores vulnerables del juego excesivo y manteniendo a los menores fuera del juego de azar. Además, es una herramienta para promover la excelencia jurisdiccional, experiencia e innovación responsable.

Un marco bien pensado salvaguardaría el interés público garantizando la equidad y protegiendo a las personas vulnerables de forma más efectiva que una prohibición del juego, mientras que también sirve para generar empleos, aumentar el PIB de un país y atraer inversiones extranjeras. La regulación también ayuda en la prevención de la utilización de los juegos a los efectos de la delincuencia y el lavado de dinero. Estos son los objetivos regulatorios de cada marco regulatorio de juego.

Principios de buenas prácticas en la regulación del sector de juegos

Tecnología y neutralidad del juego

Un marco tecnológico neutral permite a los operadores de la plataforma suficiente espacio para maniobrar en la adopción de prácticas que se ajusten a sus necesidades. Fomenta la innovación y el desarrollo, en lugar de sofocarlo. Tener una ley tecnológicamente neutral evita la discriminación entre diferentes tipos de tecnologías con funcionalidades similares, o entre tecnologías convencionales y emergentes. La legislación debe estar preparada para el futuro, a la luz del hecho de que los actos legislativos tardan mucho en construirse. La neutralidad tecnológica en la legislación se refiere a dos objetivos principales: fomentar la innovación y la sostenibilidad.

  1. Fomento de la innovación: esto implica que la legislación debe evitar imponer limitaciones y restricciones innecesarias en el desarrollo y el empleo de nuevas tecnologías y modelos de negocio;
  2. Sostenibilidad: las leyes tecnológicamente neutrales tienen más probabilidades que, de manera exitosa, resistan el paso del tiempo. Una de las formas en que esto podría lograrse es asignando la función de establecimiento de normas a los organismos o autoridades gubernamentales y dándoles la capacidad de proporcionar un control autorizado. Esto no solo permitiría la innovación, sino que también evitaría el engorroso procedimiento de tener que pasar por el proceso de enmiendas legislativas.

El punto clave es crear un marco que no sea excesivamente oneroso para la industria y al mismo tiempo garantizar una regulación efectiva. Un buen marco legislativo se centra en las áreas que realmente importan para agilizar la supervisión.

Protección del jugador

Los mecanismos de protección del jugador deben ser lo suficientemente rígidos para centrarse en la protección de los jugadores, pero deben ser lo suficientemente pragmáticos para permitir a los operadores un cierto grado de flexibilidad en el funcionamiento de la plataforma. Un marco orientado a la protección del jugador debe abordar los diversos principios de protección del jugador, algunos de los cuales incluyen la protección de menores y personas vulnerables, la limitación de fondos adicionales, juego justo, operación responsable, exhibiciones de información y señales de advertencia, publicidad limitada y medidas para combatir infiltración criminal. Una forma práctica de cómo se puede lograr esto es, por ejemplo, a través de funcionalidades de restricción automática, en las que las personas pueden solicitar la prohibición efectiva de todas las ubicaciones de juegos con licencia en tierra o plataformas de juegos remotas dentro de la jurisdicción. Permitir que los clientes se impongan limitaciones a sus gastos también es una herramienta eficaz para lograr los objetivos reglamentarios.

Otros mecanismos comunes incluyen:

  • Transparencia: Proporcionar información clara y transparente a los clientes es probablemente el mecanismo de protección del jugador más efectivo que uno podría implementar. Esto debería estar en el centro de cada marco regulatorio de juegos.
  • Certificación: la certificación de los juegos es crucial para garantizar la equidad de los juegos que se proporcionan. Esto requiere un marco robusto que atienda la acreditación de certificadores y especificaciones técnicas claras contra las cuales los certificadores necesitan probar los juegos.
  • Monitoreo: Técnicas de monitoreo efectivas y eficientes. Recibir un volcado de datos de forma regular no es uno de ellos. Las verificaciones de los operadores y las auditorías periódicas son más efectivas y eficientes. Los controles del operador incluyen visitar el sitio web del operador utilizando una cuenta de prueba proporcionada por el licenciatario o incluso mejor a través de ejercicios de compras misteriosas. Un enfoque de cumplimiento basado en el riesgo requiere que el marco asigne a la autoridad competente el rol de monitorear el riesgo de manera efectiva, por ejemplo, a través de instalaciones de informes que atiendan a los procesos de gestión de riesgos.
  • Cumplimiento: es inútil tener un marco regulatorio sólido a menos que otorgue las herramientas y poderes de cumplimiento correctos a las autoridades pertinentes.

No duplicación de controles

Cuando se hace una solicitud para una licencia de juego, el marco legislativo del juego debe evitar la duplicación de procedimientos y controles, lo que significa que, si una autoridad de juego competente en otra jurisdicción ha llevado a cabo controles en la aplicación, estos controles no necesitan repetirse a menos que sea necesario. Sin embargo, cuando se le solicite que se base en procedimientos y controles llevados a cabo por una autoridad competente en otra jurisdicción, sería ideal someter dichas medidas a una verificación adicional y el marco no necesita obligarlo a aceptar la confianza si no brindan garantías equivalentes a esas proporcionado por el marco nacional. Además, el principio de no duplicación de controles debe aplicarse también dentro del marco mismo. Muchos marcos de juego tienden a volverse extremadamente burocráticos y mecánicos, debido a la inseguridad de las autoridades para regular el sector. Para regular efectivamente las industrias tecnológicas modernas, es esencial que las autoridades adopten un enfoque pragmático al no sofocar la innovación sino más bien concentrarse en lo que realmente importa. El juego se ha convertido en una industria de alta tecnología y, por lo tanto, esto se aplica directamente a él.

Conclusión

Irrefutablemente, el marco legislativo de juego ideal debe adoptar un enfoque reformista, vigilando las estructuras de gobernanza y control dentro, mientras se mantiene la rendición de cuentas. Tener un marco legislativo sólido es la clave, sin embargo, tener una autoridad efectiva que busque alcanzar los objetivos regulatorios buscados por el marco es elemental. Dicha autoridad debe estar alerta ante cualquier cambio que ocurra en la industria y ser proactivo en la adopción de medidas en relación con la innovación. En conclusión, un régimen exitoso debería medirse en términos de eficiencia o crecimiento sostenible dentro del sector, colocando al jugador en el corazón del ecosistema.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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