Hungary: Die Zwangsvollstreckung in Ungarn Teil 2.

Last Updated: 6 August 2019
Article by Katona & Partners Attorneys At Law
Most Read Contributor in Hungary, August 2019

Haben Sie Forderungen gegen einen ungarischen Schuldner? Das wird bei uns vollgestreckt! Sobald Sie die Hürde des Erlangens eines vollstreckbaren Titels genommen haben, z.B. nach einem erfolgreichen Mahnverfahren, werden die Gerichtsvollzieher aktiv, die neben den Landgerichten arbeiten und die Angelegenheiten nach Wohnort/Sitz des Schuldners betreuen.

In dem zweiten Teil unserer Serie haben wir uns mit den Maßnahmen in der Zwangsvollstreckung beschäftig – hier geht es jetzt weiter mit den Rechtsmitteln, welche die Schuldner dagegen anwenden können.

3. Rechtsmittel in/während der Zwangsvollstreckung

3.1. Einwände gegen die Maßnahmen des Gerichtsvollziehers

Jeder Schuldner ist bedacht, den Verlauf der Zwangsvollstreckung aufzuhalten, bzw. die Maßnahmen des Gerichtsvollziehers möglichst zu beanstanden.

Nun, dazu steht gegen eine Gebühr von HUF 15.000,- jedem Schuldner die Möglichkeit offen und zwar gegen jede Maßnahme des Gerichtsvollziehers, einen Einwand dagegen bei der für die Zwangsvollstreckung zuständigen Gericht – zu dem auch der Gerichtsvollzieher im seinem geographischen Zuständigkeitsbereich gehört – einzureichen.

Drunten fällt auch z.B. die Feststellung des Schätzwertes von Immobilien, welche er in der ersten Reihe ganz bequem nach dem durch die örtliche Selbstverwaltung herausgegebenen Steuer- und Wertnachweis bestimmt, und so weiter und so fort. Grundsätzlich sind sogar einfache Mitteilungen des Gerichtsvollziehers anfechtbar. I.d.R. sind diese Anfechtungen jedoch nicht erfolgreich, und werden durch das Gericht in strengen Fristen abgewiesen, zudem halten die Zwangsvollstreckung sowieso nicht auf.

Es sind meist nur verzweifelte Versuche daher durch den Schuldner, gegen die Zwangsvollstreckung einzuwirken.

3.2. Aufhören / Ruhen der Zwangsvollstreckung

Gewissermaßen gehört das Ruhen der Zwangsvollstreckung auch zu den Maßnahmen gegen diese. Das Ruhen des Verfahrens kann durch den Schuldner in mehreren Wegen versucht, zu erreichen.

a) Antrag auf die Löschung der notariellen Beurkundung

Falls die Forderung auf einer in notarieller Urkunde gefasste Forderung beruht, wird diese Urkunde auch durch den Notar unter bestimmten Bedingungen verklauselt und so unmittelbar vollstreckbar.

Sofern der Verdacht besteht, dass die notarielle Urkunde rechtswidrig verklauselt wurde, diese Klausel kann vor dem Notar angefochten werden.

In dem Antrag kann auch vorerst das Ruhen des Verfahrens beantragt werden.

Dieser Rechtsmittel ist jedoch meist auch nicht wirksam, wird weder der Klausel gelöscht, noch das Ruhen der Zwangsvollstreckung verordnet.

b) Klage auf Nichtigkeit des Vertrages aus dem die Forderung stammt

Auch während der Zwangsvollstreckung kann noch Klage auf Nichtigkeit des Vertrages eingereicht werden, aus dem die Forderung stammt, welche vollgesteckt wird.

In dem Fall ordnet das verhandelnde Gericht das Ruhen der Zwangsvollstreckung an, sofern die Klage begründet erscheint. Da hier nicht das Gericht am Werk" ist, welche dem Gerichtsvollzieher nahesteht, die Chance ist höher, das Ruhen des Verfahrens vorab zu erreichen.

4.) Zusammenfassung

Wir können letztendlich sagen, ist eine Forderung soweit, dass darauf vollgestreckt wird, es ist nur eine Frage der Zeit, dass es auch zu Ende gebracht wird.

Sieht der Gerichtsvollzieher in der Vollstreckung auch für sich höhere Einnahmen, macht die Schritte auch schneller und entscheidender, keine Instanz kann ihn aufhalten.

Es ist auch charakteristisch, dass von dem Gerichtsvollzieher wenig wertvollere Vermögengegenstände links liegen gelassen werden – wie Einrichtung – auf die Große jedoch umso schneller die Vollstreckung angestrengt wird.

Da in Ungarn die Schuldner keine verbindliche Vermögensauskunft angeben muss, ist auch verständlich, dass Vermögen, welche in Register auffindbar ist – Wagen etc. – zuerst herangezogen werden, weil bei diesen der Vermögensbestand verfolgt werden kann.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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