Netherlands: De Wet arbeidsmarkt in balans en andere ontwikkelingen in het arbeidsrecht

Last Updated: 18 February 2019
Article by Eugenie Nunes and Epke Spijkerman

De Tweede Kamer heeft dinsdag 5 februari de Wet arbeidsmarkt in balans (WAB) aangenomen. Nu de Tweede Kamer heeft ingestemd met de WAB, gaat het wetsvoorstel naar de Eerste Kamer. Als de Eerste Kamer ook instemt met het voorstel, gaan de wijzigingen per 1 januari 2020 in.

De WAB maakt volgens het Ministerie van sociale Zaken en werkgelegenheid deel uit van een breder pakket aan maatregelen dat erop is gericht om de balans op de arbeidsmarkt te verbeteren. Het gaat hierbij onder andere om het verminderen van de kloof tussen vaste contracten en flexibele arbeid. Om dat te bereiken wordt de huidige wet op een aantal punten aangepast, onder meer de ketenregeling, wijziging van de (berekening) van de ontslagvergoeding en invoering van een cumulatieontslaggrond.

In het plenaire debat over de WAB bleek onlangs al dat een meerderheid van de Tweede Kamer tegen het plan was om een proeftijd van vijf maanden mogelijk te maken. Deze maatregel gaat dan ook niet door, net als het plan om een proeftijd van drie maanden mogelijk te maken voor tijdelijke contracten van langer dan twee jaar.

De voorgenomen wijzigingen die de WAB met zich meebrengt:

  • De periode waarna elkaar opvolgende arbeidsovereenkomsten voor bepaalde tijd van rechtswege overgaan in een arbeidsovereenkomst voor onbepaalde tijd (de ketenregeling) wordt wederom op drie jaar gezet. Het maximumaantal arbeidsovereenkomsten voor bepaalde tijd blijft 3: wordt de arbeidsovereenkomst daarna voorgezet, dan is dit een arbeidsovereenkomst voor onbepaalde tijd, ook als de hiervoor genoemde termijn van drie jaar nog niet is verstreken.
  • De wijzigingen in de berekening van de transitievergoeding. Denk aan:
    • Het vervallen van de periode van twee jaar voordat een werknemer in aanmerking komt voor de transitievergoeding. Een werknemer heeft hier straks vanaf het begin van zijn arbeidsovereenkomst recht op.
    • De werkgever moet de transitievergoeding straks berekenen over de feitelijke duur van de arbeidsovereenkomst. De afronding op halve dienstjaren vervalt.
    • De transitievergoeding bedraagt voor elk dienstjaar een derde van het maandsalaris. De hogere vergoeding bij een dienstverband na verloop van tien jaar die nu nog geldt, wordt afgeschaft.
  • De introductie van de cumulatiegrond bij ontslag. Hierdoor kunnen werkgevers straks verschillende ontslaggronden met elkaar combineren en wordt het voor werkgevers eenvoudiger werknemers te ontslaan (de i-grond). Ontslaat de werkgever een werknemer op basis van deze grond, dan kan de rechter de werknemer (naast de wettelijke transitievergoeding en evt. billijke vergoeding bij ontslag) wel een extra vergoeding toekennen van maximaal de helft van de wettelijke transitievergoeding.
  • In de wet wordt een nieuwe definitie opgenomen: de "oproepovereenkomst". Steeds als een oproepovereenkomst een jaar heeft geduurd, moet de werkgever de werknemer een aanbod doen voor een arbeidsovereenkomst. Dit aanbod is gebaseerd op de gemiddelde gewerkte arbeidsduur in de voorgaande twaalf maanden. Daarnaast moet de werkgever een oproepkracht straks minimaal vier dagen van tevoren oproepen (bij cao kan hiervan worden afgeweken).
  • Het wijzigen van de regels voor payrollers. Payrollwerknemers krijgen recht op dezelfde arbeidsvoorwaarden als werknemers van de opdrachtgever, en daarnaast recht op een "adequate" pensioenregeling.
  • De wijzigingen in de WW-premie. Werkgevers gaan een lage WW-premie betalen voor werknemers met een vast contact (met vastgelegde arbeidsomvang) en een hoge WW-premie voor werknemers met een tijdelijk contract. Contracten voor jongeren onder de 21 jaar die ten hoogste twaalf uur per week werken, vallen niet onder de hoge premie in het kader van de premiedifferentiatie;
  • Werknemers vanaf 21 jaar krijgen per 1 juli 2019 recht op het volledige minimumloon. Het minimumloon voor 18, 19 en 20-jarigen gaat verder omhoog.

De verder te verwachten ontwikkelingen

  • Het kabinet gaat ook inzetten op het bestrijden van schijnzelfstandigheid. Het kabinet werkt in 2019 maatregelen uit ter vervanging van de Wet Deregulering Arbeidsrelaties (DBA) waarmee, met name aan de onderkant van de arbeidsmarkt, schijnzelfstandigheid en concurrentie op arbeidsvoorwaarden, wordt tegengegaan. Daarnaast beogen de maatregelen zekerheid te geven aan zelfstandigen en hun opdrachtgevers dat heen sprake is van een dienstbetrekking. De opschorting van handhaving van de Wet DBA duurt voort tot 1 januari 2020.
  • De Detacheringsrichtlijn is herzien. De implementatie van de nieuwe richtlijn in de lidstaten moet uiterlijk 30 juli 2020 zijn voltooid. Zo krijgen gedetacheerde werknemers na 12 maanden detachering recht op de arbeidsvoorwaarden van het gastland, met uitzondering van de regels met betrekking tot ontslag en aanvullend pensioen.
  • In 2019 wordt de meldplicht voor dienstverleners uit de EU ingevoerd. Deze plicht zal gaan gelden voor dienstverleners uit andere lidstaten die hun werknemers in Nederland te werk stellen.

De verwachting is dat de verplichting in zal gaan per 1 april 2019. Wij houden u graag op de hoogte van de ontwikkelingen.

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