European Union: Pratiques commerciales: le blocage géographique et la segmentation territoriale du marché deviennent plus difficiles au Luxembourg

Last Updated: 31 January 2019
Article by Philippe-Emmanuel Partsch and Thomas Evans

Depuis le 3 décembre 2018, le Règlement (UE) 2018/302 visant à contrer le blocage géographique injustifié et d'autres formes de discrimination fondées sur la nationalité, le lieu de résidence ou le lieu d'établissement des clients dans le marché intérieur est directement applicable dans l'Union européenne. Il interdit expressément aux commerçants (détaillants et distributeurs) d'imposer une série de restrictions géographiques aux utilisateurs finaux (entreprises et consommateurs) dans l'UE et est notable aussi dans la mesure qu'il impose des obligations aux détaillants allant au-delà des dispositions existantes en droit de la concurrence et de la consommation.

Afin de rendre les dispositions du Règlement sur le blocage géographique pleinement applicables au Luxembourg, le Parlement luxembourgeois étudie actuellement un projet de loi qui donne notamment aux entreprises et consommateurs la possibilité de demander au Tribunal d'arrondissement d'ordonner la cessation des actes contraires aux dispositions du Règlement sur le blocage géographique. Cette législation devrait être adoptée au cours des prochains mois.

Ce que le Règlement interdit

Le Règlement sur le blocage géographique concerne les ventes entre entreprises et celles entre entreprises et consommateurs (à l'exclusion des accords négociés individuellement) et s'applique tant aux ventes en ligne qu'aux ventes hors ligne. Le Règlement stipule, en substance, qu'il ne devrait pas y avoir de discrimination injustifiée dans l'achat de biens et services par les utilisateurs finaux (vente de biens non destinés à la revente) sur la base de leur nationalité ou de leur pays de résidence.

En particulier :

  • Il ne doit pas y avoir de blocage d'accès ou de redirection automatique vers le site web d'un commerçant dans un autre État membre de l'UE (sauf s'il existe des motifs légaux de le faire) ;
  • Tous les clients – consommateurs et entreprises agissant comme utilisateurs finaux – au sein de l'Union doivent bénéficier du même droit aux prix ou aux promotions que les clients dans l'État membre du commerçant ;
  • Toute différenciation au niveau des prix ou des conditions de vente fondée sur la résidence, la nationalité ou le lieu d'établissement doit être objectivement justifiée (par exemple, pour des raisons de conformité légale) ;
  • Il ne devrait pas y avoir de discrimination fondée sur la "nationalité" de la carte de crédit ou du moyen de paiement.

Cependant :

  • Il n'y a pas d'obligation pour les commerçants de livrer des biens ou des services à des clients dans un État Membre où ils ne le font pas d'ordinaire. Par conséquent, bien qu'un client dans l'UE doive être autorisé à acheter un produit particulier à des conditions non discriminatoires, le client peut être contraint de prendre lui-même en charge les frais de livraison ;
  • Les commerçants sont autorisés à proposer des prix ou des conditions de vente différents dans différents États membres (les dispositions du Règlement visent essentiellement à donner aux clients la possibilité de bénéficier de meilleurs prix ou conditions dans d'autres États membres de l'UE, s'ils le souhaitent, et non à harmoniser les prix à travers l'UE) ;
  • Les Suvres protégées par le droit d'auteur (telles que la musique, les jeux informatiques et les logiciels) sont exclues de certaines dispositions du Règlement et une série de services, tels que les services audiovisuels, financiers, de santé (dont les produits pharmaceutiques), sociaux et de transport, sont totalement exclus du champ d'application du Règlement (ces exclusions seront réexaminées en 2020).

Application au Luxembourg

Le Parlement luxembourgeois examine actuellement un projet de loi sur l'application des dispositions du Règlement sur le blocage géographique au Luxembourg. En effet, le Règlement sur le blocage géographique impose aux États membres d'adopter, dans leur législation nationale, des mesures effectives qui s'appliquent en cas de violation de ces dispositions.

Le projet de loi propose un cadre d'application qui correspond à celui qui s'applique à certaines pratiques commerciales déloyales et en droit de la consommation. Les parties peuvent intenter une action en cessation contre les commerçants établis au Luxembourg devant un tribunal d'arrondissement habilité à ordonner la cessation de tout acte illégal via une procédure accélérée (à savoir la procédure applicable devant le tribunal des référés). En cas de non-respect de l'ordonnance de cessation, le tribunal peut infliger une amende pouvant aller jusqu'à 120 000 euros. Les parties en mesure d'intenter de telles actions sont non seulement les personnes physiques et morales, mais aussi les groupements professionnels et les associations de consommateurs intéressés, ainsi que le Ministère de la Protection des consommateurs.

De plus, le projet de loi propose de confier au Centre européen des consommateurs GIE Luxembourg la responsabilité de conseiller et d'informer les consommateurs luxembourgeois dans leurs litiges avec les entreprises.

Le projet de loi a déjà été commenté par la Chambre de Commerce de Luxembourg, l'Union Luxembourgeoise des Consommateurs (ULC) et le Conseil de la concurrence et devrait donc être adopté dans les prochains mois (Dossier N° 7366 : Projet de loi relatif à certaines modalités d'application et à la sanction du Règlement (UE) 2018/302 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 28 février 2018 visant à contrer le blocage géographique injustifié et d'autres formes de discrimination fondée sur la nationalité, le lieu de résidence ou le lieu d'établissement des clients dans le marché intérieur, et modifiant les règlements (CE) no 2006/2004 et (UE) 2017/2394 et la directive 2009/22/CE).

En raison du Règlement sur le blocage géographique et de la future législation nationale, les commerçants de la plupart des biens et services doivent d'ores et déjà veiller à ce que la disponibilité, la tarification et les conditions de vente de leurs offres ne soient pas discriminatoires sans justification objective en fonction du pays de résidence ou d'établissement des clients ou de leurs moyens de paiement. Les risques ou opportunités précis présentés par le Règlement sur le blocage géographique au Luxembourg seront bientôt déterminés par la législation nationale.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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