Chile: Los diez desafíos principales al hacer negocios en Chile

Last Updated: 18 December 2018
Article by TMF Group

Chile es uno de los países de América Latina más ricos, estables y competitivos. No obstante, para aquellos que quieren comenzar un negocio allí, existen muchos desafíos burocráticos y regulatorios. Es importante tener el conocimiento local para establecer exitosamente su compañía en Chile.

1. Establecer un negocio

El Banco Mundial y la Corporación Financiera Internacional (CFI) ubicaron a Chile en la posición 55 a nivel global respecto de la facilidad para comenzar un negocio. Se deben completar siete procedimientos que pueden llevar de cinco a siete días. Algunos de esos procedimientos deben realizarse personalmente y otros pueden gestionarse en línea. Los procesos incluyen la gestión de un número de identificación tributario (RUT), la firma digital de documentos realizada por un escribano y la gestión de una licencia corporativa (Patente comercial) y del registro ante el seguro de accidentes laborales.

2. Lidiar con permisos de construcción 

Obtener los permisos de construcción es un largo proceso en Chile que puede tomar 133 días y unos 12 pasos para completarlo. Muchas de esas etapas deben completarse a través de varias entidades gubernamentales, tales como la compañía sanitaria para gestionar la disponibilidad de agua y el trato de aguas residuales y la conexión de los servicios hídricos. El proceso más largo es el de solicitar y obtener el permiso de construcción que puede durar 68 días. En algunas municipalidades, existe una plataforma en línea llamada Ventanilla Transaccional de Trámites Municipales donde pueden completarse nueve trámites. No obstante, los procedimientos y reglas son diferentes en base a la altura y densidad del edificio.

3. Obtener electricidad

Las compañías deberán esperar 43 días y llevar adelante cinco procedimientos para obtener electricidad. El primer paso es el de presentar un formulario de forma personal en Enel Distribución Chile S.A. y aguardar a que envíen un presupuesto estimado. Enel Distribución Chile S.A realizará una inspección y, una vez aprobada, la firma y presentación de seis documentos puede llevar 14 días hasta que se otorgue la conexión eléctrica.

4. Registrar la propiedad

El registro de una propiedad en Chile es un proceso largo que puede durar 28 días y medio. No obstante puede llevar menos tiempo que en otros lugares de Latinoamérica. Un abogado debe realizar la debida diligencia sobre el historial legal de la propiedad respecto de los 10 años anteriores. A fin de registrar la propiedad, la compañía debe solicitar copias de los títulos de propiedad de los 10 años previos, el Certificado de Vigencia y el certificado de gravamen del registro. Se debe pagar el impuesto a la propiedad, firmar la escritura pública y registrarla ante la oficina de Bienes Raíces y obtener el Certificado de Propiedad y el Certificado de Hipotecas y Propiedad Limitada.

5. Obtener crédito y proteger a los inversores

Obtener crédito en Chile puede resultar muy simple y rápido dada la solidez del sector financiero. La protección a los inversores minoristas en Chile no es algo en lo que el país se destaque pero es comparable a otros países en la región.

6. Pagar impuestos

En Chile, existen al menos 15 impuestos para pagar cada año (IVA, Impuesto a las ganancias, licencias corporativas), con varios procesos que pueden llevar 291 horas cada año. La mayoría de los procesos pueden realizarse en línea pero requieren mucho tiempo respecto de los impuestos laborales y el impuesto al valor agregado (IVA) que toman 124 horas y media del tiempo de la compañía. En agosto de 2018, se realizó una propuesta para la reforma impositiva para establecer un sistema único y una simplificación de registros, entre otros cambios positivos.

7. El comercio a través de las fronteras

Chile cuenta con una de las economías más abiertas con acuerdos comerciales gratuitos con muchos países. Ello hace que el comercio transfronterizo sea más fácil aunque pueden generarse altos costos de importación y exportación en el país. Su clasificación es muy similar a la de México y Perú.

8. Celebrar contratos

La celebración de un contrato puede llevar 480 días. Ese plazo es menor al de Brasil y México pero incluye muchos procedimientos. El sistema judicial procesa el reclamo de manera eficiente, pero la presentación y los servicios agregan una gran cantidad de tiempo al procedimiento completo.

9. Resolución de quiebra

La resolución de quiebra en Chile lleva dos años con una tasa de recuperación baja. El proceso de reorganización es relativamente rápido pero la etapa de liquidación es la que lleva más tiempo, con plazos de procesamiento que varían en base a los tribunales.

10. Cultura

Los chilenos son solidarios, amables y amigables pero son más formales al hacer negocios. La puntualidad es clave y la construcción de la confianza a través de conversaciones ligeras y personales antes de comenzar a discutir asuntos de negocios ayuda a construir la relación.

TMF Group

Los expertos de TMF Chile tienen el conocimiento local para ayudarlo a comprender la inversión y operación de su negocio en el país. Si desea establecer su compañía en Chile o solo quiere simplificar sus operaciones chilenas, contáctenos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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