Ecuador: La Importancia De Una Marca Fuerte

Last Updated: 11 December 2018
Article by José Andrés Bedón
Most Read Contributor in Ecuador, December 2018

Una marca es un bien inmaterial, que se encuentra conformado por caracteres que son perceptibles a través de los sentidos. La marca tiene una función informativa, publicitaria y distintiva. Hablamos de una función informativa puesto que sirve para indicar la procedencia de un producto o servicio y para informar sobre la garantía o calidad que un producto o servicio tiene en relación al fabricante del mismo. Las marcas tienen una función publicitaria, pues permiten que los productos o servicios sean publicitados por diversos medios ante los consumidores; y, por último las marcas cumplen la función de distinguir productos y servicios en el mercado.

Para un operador económico que se encuentra, o que pretende ingresar, en el mercado de bienes o servicios, es realmente importante que la marca que utilizará para identificar sus productos o servicios, sea una marca que permita que los consumidores diferencien sus productos o servicios de otros. La marca que se utilice en el mercado debe permitir que los consumidores puedan atribuir características en razón de la calidad de los productos o servicios; y finalmente puedan recibir publicidad de los mismos. Cuando una marca ha sido correctamente utilizada sirve para que el consumidor, a la hora de adquirir un producto, sepa exactamente cuál es el producto que está escogiendo. Si el consumidor tiene pleno conocimiento sobre el producto o servicio que escogió no se verá inmerso en una situación de incertidumbre, como puede ser el escoger un producto o servicio pensando que es otro.

Como asesores en propiedad intelectual, nos hemos encontrado con personas que están a punto de empezar con su negocio, tienen el capital para hacerlo y tienen un producto de excelentes características y potencial, que está destinado a cubrir una necesidad presente en el mercado. Sin embargo, la marca con la que quieren acceder al mercado tiene la particularidad de que no cumple con las funciones que previamente indicamos, bien sea porque las marcas son descriptivas o son de uso común para los productos o servicios que quieren proteger Este problema se da en razón de que existe la errónea creencia de que una marca es mejor mientras más fácil sea para el consumidor identificar que tipo de producto se está adquiriendo, es decir, la marca sólo es utilizada para identificar al producto o servicio más no para diferenciarlos de los demás en el mercado. A manera de ejemplos sobre la mencionada problemática, para identificar "yogurt", en el mercado es común encontrar marcas como: "Yogu-Yogu", "Yogu listo", "Yogu rico", "Cremi yogu", etc.; o marcas que describen las características del mismo, como por ejemplo un endulzante llamado "endulza todo"; un té adelgazante llamado "Adelgaza-té", o un snack de yuca llamado "Yuquitas".

Estos emprendedores que están por entrar al mercado, sienten una cercanía y apego tan fuerte con su producto, que en el momento en que se trata de crear una verdadera marca les cuesta muchísimo y no quieren entender que esa marca débil no es la mejor opción. Estas marcas son débiles porque están informando sobre los atributos o las características que el producto o servicio tiene, atributos o características que productos o servicios competidores también tienen, y como tal no permiten distinguir plenamente al producto de otro en el mercado.

Las marcas débiles, son marcas que no podrán ser usadas de forma exclusiva, que tendrán que tolerar coexistir en el mercado con muchas otras similares, marcas por las cuales no vale realizar mucha inversión en su posicionamiento, pues esta inversión se verá dispersada hacia los productos con marcas similares.

Por otro lado, una marca realmente fuerte es aquella que diferencia el producto o servicio de los demás en el mercado, es aquella por la cual el consumidor crea en su mente una idea de un solo producto. Las mencionadas marcas fuertes deben ser marcas de fantasía (inventada) o marcas arbitrarias (palabra usada en contexto no relacionado). De esta forma, la inversión que se realice en publicidad se verá recompensada el momento en que los consumidores identifiquen únicamente a nuestro producto, y lo prefieran por la calidad y el esmero. El poseer una marca fuerte para identificar nuestro producto o servicio generará que los consumidores no piensen que un producto o servicio de similares características es el mismo que nosotros proporcionamos. Más importante aún, cuando veamos que nuestros competidores tratan de imitarnos podremos evitarlo y tomar las acciones necesarias en contra de estas actuaciones, basados en la fortaleza de nuestra marca.

Para obtener una marca fuerte, se debe realizar un trabajo conjunto entre las personas dedicadas a marketing y los abogados asesores en materia de propiedad intelectual, con la finalidad de realizar un proceso de desarrollo de una denominación fuerte para identificar los productos o servicios que vamos a poner en el mercado como provenientes de un origen empresarial determinado.

Existen diversos mecanismos que los abogados especialistas en propiedad intelectual utilizamos para poder generar las marcas fuertes para los productos o servicios de nuestros clientes. Un abogado especialista debe realizar ejercicios de branding legal encaminados a brindarle al cliente una marca por la que va a valer la pena invertir, una marca que una vez posicionada en el comercio va a servir de referencia para la competencia, una marca que verdaderamente va a diferenciar al producto de cualquier otro similar en el mercado.

Para los operadores económicos es recomendable buscar la asesoría de una abogado especialista en propiedad intelectual y desarrollo de marcas. El abogado especialista podría aconsejarte respecto a la marca actual que tiene el producto o servicio, y en caso de ser necesario, le guiará a desarrollar una marca nueva que sea fuerte. Con una marca fuerte, cualquier operador económico puede concentrarse en hacer funcionar el negocio y posicionar el producto, en lugar de preocuparse por eventualmente compartir beneficios, a causa de su inversión, con sus competidores.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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