Singapore: Amendments To The Singapore Employment Act - Tips For Japanese Companies (Japanese)

Last Updated: 13 November 2018
Article by Eng Leng Ng and Mariko Nakagawa

シンガポール雇用法改正について

シンガポール雇用法(Employment Act)は1968年に制定され、雇用主と労働者の法的関係や基本的労働条件を定める法律で、制定以来時勢に合わせた改定が重ねられてきました。従来のシンガポール雇用法では法の適用される被用者の範囲は「職種」や「月給額」によって一部あるいは全部の適用が除外されていました。投資を呼び込むことは天然資源や広い国土がないシンガポールにとっては不可欠であり、その為に法律もより企業が雇用し管理(解雇を含む)しやすい法制として設計されてきた経緯があります。このように労働契約の自由を原則としつつ、最低限の保護が必要なカテゴリーの労働者の場合のみ労働法による修正を行い、労働法の適用が限定されている点がこれまでのシンガポール雇用法制の特徴ともいえます。ところが昨今、シンガポール経済の発展に伴い、専門技能を持ち高給を得る専門管理職(PME)(Professionals, Managers and Executivesの略)の割合が増え、人口の半分を超えたと言われています。法律の保護が及ばない労働者のほうが多くなる計算です。そこで今回の法改正では、PMEを含む労働者の最低限の労働基準の確保と権利保護を図るため、従来法的保護がなかったPME層にも法律の適用範囲を相当程度に拡張する狙いがあります。改正後は、約43万人のPMEが新たに雇用法適用対象になると見込まれています。以下、PME層に対して新たに適用される規定を中心に、改正法対応として日系企業が特に留意すべき点や対応について概説します。

(1)管理職にも与えられる休暇の権利

改正法によってPMEを含む被用者全般(*但し船員や家事労働者等は現行法同様「被用者」の定義から除かれています)に拡張された項目のうち、法定有給休暇としては以下のような休暇が含まれます。

  1. 年7日以上の年次有給休暇の付与(改正後はパート10に規定)。
  2. 年11日の国民の祝日は有給として付与。
  3. 年14日間の有給の疾病休暇(入院を伴わない)の付与。
  4. 年60日間の有給の入院休暇(上記14日間を含む合計)の付与。
  5. 出産休暇・育児休暇(雇用法上定めるものに限る。シンガポール国籍の子の親は別途規定)。

なお、「雇用法第四章」は、現行法同様、全職員に対して適用されるわけではありません。現行法同様一定のカテゴリの従業員への限定適用です。第四章とは、労働時間の制限・シフト等、残業手当支給基準や整理解雇手当など主要な労働条件に関する規定を定める章です。改正後第四章の適用対象者は、事務系労働者で月給2,600ドル以下(給与限度額が現行法から100ドル引上げ)、肉体労働者や運転手等のいわゆるワークマンで月給4,500ドル以下(給与限度額は据置き)です。これらの条件に該当しない職員の第四章に定める権利、例えば残業代支給は、雇用契約に定めがなければ権利が発生しません。

(2) 重要な労働条件と給与支払いにかかる条件

上記のとおり、現行の雇用法の第四章「以外」に定められている項目は、改正によってPMEを含む被用者全般に適用されることになります。特に注意すべき給与関連の項目を幾つか挙げるならば、例えば、給与支払いの時期(日付、月ごと等一定サイクルの遵守)、有給休暇の日割り計算式(グロス・レートの概念等)、個別明細の含まれたペイスリップの交付、給与や職務範囲、就労時間などの重要な就労条件についての書面による提示などが含まれます。

(3)労働紛争解決

現行法では、不当解雇された場合や、給与の未払いを争いたい場合でも、PMEを含む雇用法適用対象外の労働者は費用が低額な専門の労働紛争調停機関への申立てができず、多額な費用のかかる民事裁判で争う他方法がありませんでした。改正法では紛争解決に関しても法適用が拡張されることとなるため、PMEも(その他の申立条件を満たす限り)労働紛争調停機関に申立てを行うことが可能となります。

(4)日系企業 人事管理者のためのポイント

従来、駐在員の多くが、PMEに該当するか非管理職で月給4,500ドル以上に該当しておりシンガポール雇用法全般について適用除外となることがほとんどでした。外国人駐在員はシンガポール雇用法は適用除外とするという規定はないため、駐在員たるPMEにも改正法の適用が及ぶこととなります。

日本からシンガポール拠点への出向者の場合、日本での労務契約・福利厚生条件がそのままで適用されて、シンガポールでの個別の労働契約・条件が特に定められていない場合も多くあります。例えば、日本の労働基準では、完全有給の外来疾病休暇が年14日間(入院は60日)も与えられていないことがほとんどですが、このままの基準をシンガポールで適用し続けた場合は改正後のシンガポール基準に適合しないことになります。

シンガポール人PMEや永住権をもつ外国人PMEを雇用している日系企業は大多数です。ローカルPME従業員との間の既存の雇用契約が、改正後の基準を満たすかどうかは確認しておくべきです。例えば、法定休暇の「日数」に限ってみると、当地では極めて標準的ですのでこれを改定しなければならない会社は多くないと思われますが、併せて、他の休暇関連規定、例えば、退職時(懲戒解雇除く)の未消化有給の買取り義務、有給給与の日割りレート計算(グロスレートでなければならない)の規定などは標準的とまではいえません。改正後は、これらの関連規定も含めて雇用法への適合性を満たさなければなりません。

他の注意点としては手続き面です。契約書面の改定にとどまらず、実際の休暇申請や承認手続が明確かつ実行可能なことも確認すべきです。例えば、改正法では短期の疾病休暇の取得にも医師の証明書を要する規定があり、改正後駐在員やPMEに対しても適用されます。外来の診断書取得は日本では一般的でなく、駐在員には周知が必要です。また、医師の証明書取得に必要な診察費用は雇用主に負担義務がある規定もPMEに適用が拡張されますが、会社指定医のリストの整備、診察費用の限度額や請求方法、誰に申請し承認されるべきかなど、社内での具体的な規定や手続き方法についても具体的かつ明白に定めておかなければ管理に支障をきたす可能性があります。不明確な規定や規定の不備が誤解を招いて現場の混乱を生じさせたり、診察費用請求が従業員に悪用されるなどの問題ともなりえます。

上記を含め、雇用法適用対象者がPMEにも拡充されたことに対する企業の対応としては、改正法の下で雇用契約が改正法の最低基準を満たすことの確認(場合によっては雇用契約や就業規則等の改定が必要)に加え、実務的な労務管理手続を整備することも要請されます。違反に対しては罰則も科されます。改正法草案は2018年10月2日付で提出されており、国会承認を経て施行は2019年4月頃に予定されています。

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