Portugal: Lei da Segurança Privada declarada parcialmente inconstitucional

Last Updated: 22 October 2018
Article by Tiago Duarte, Raquel Ribeiro Correia and João Tornada

Most Read Contributor in Portugal, October 2018

Acórdão do Tribunal Constitucional N.º 376/2018

1. OBJETO

Foi publicado no dia 18 de setembro de 2018, o Acórdão do Tribunal Constitucional n.º 376/2018, proferido em 4 de julho de 20181, o qual procedeu à declaração de inconstitucionalidade com força obrigatória geral da norma constante da alínea d) do n.º 1 do artigo 22.º e, quanto à remissão para esta, das normas constantes dos n.ºs 2, 3 e 4 do mesmo artigo, todos do "Regime do Exercício da Atividade de Segurança Privada"2, a qual condicionava a autorização para o exercício da atividade de segurança privada ao requisito de "não ter sido condenado, por sentença transitada em julgado, pela prática de crime doloso previsto no Código Penal e demais legislação penal", por violação do n.º 1 do artigo 47.º, em conjugação com o n.º 2 do artigo 18.º, ambos da Constituição

Assinalam-se na presente Nota Informativa as principais implicações que esta decisão poderá acarretar na atividade de segurança privada.

2. A DECISÃO DE INCONSTITUCIONALIDADE

O Tribunal Constitucional declarou a inconstitucionalidade da norma acima identificada por violação do princípio da proporcionalidade e do direito fundamental à liberdade de escolha de profissão, consignados, respetivamente, nos artigos 18.º, n.º 2 e 47.º, ambos da CRP.

Este acórdão incide sobre uma questão recorrente na jurisprudência constitucional portuguesa: a de saber se a Constituição permite limitações automáticas ao acesso a atividades profissionais com base na condenação pela prática de crimes, tendo em conta que o n.º 4 do art.º 30.º da Constituição estabelece que "nenhuma pena envolve como efeito necessário a perda de quaisquer direitos civis, profissionais ou políticos".

O Tribunal Constitucional concluiu (sem ser por unanimidade) que o artigo 30.º, n.º 4, da CRP não proíbe uma restrição de direitos civis, profissionais ou políticos, como efeito automático de uma condenação, se estiverem em causa "razões objetivas, que se prendem com a natureza da atividade por eles exercida e com outros valores constitucionais suscetíveis de serem afetados por essa atividade". Ora, no caso da restrição ao direito à liberdade de escolha de profissão prevista na Lei n.º 34/2013, de 16 de maio o Tribunal Constitucional considerou que a mesma era desproporcionada, e por isso inconstitucional, por abranger a condenação por crimes que poderiam não afetar a idoneidade para o exercício da atividade de segurança privada.

3. CONSEQUÊNCIAS PARA A ATIVIDADE DE SEGURANÇA PRIVADA

Esta decisão tem como principal efeito a eliminação da norma que exigia que os administradores e gerentes das sociedades de segurança privada, bem como o pessoal de segurança, os diretores de segurança, os responsáveis pelos serviços de autoproteção, os formadores de segurança privada, os gestores de formação e os coordenadores pedagógicos das entidades formadoras, não tivessem sido condenados, por sentença transitada em julgado, pela prática de crime doloso previsto no Código Penal e demais legislação penal. Essa eliminação produz efeitos retroativos desde a data da entrada em vigor da norma, ou seja, desde a entrada em vigor da Lei n.º 34/2013, de 16 de maio, excetuando as sentenças com força de caso julgado.

Em termos práticos, os processos já concluídos não são afetados, mas os pedidos administrativos de atribuição de autorização, quer pendentes, quer novos, já não poderão aplicar a referida norma. Do mesmo modo, eventuais casos de indeferimento dos pedidos por não cumprimento dessa norma, podem agora ser novamente submetidos, uma vez que essa norma já não poderá ser aplicada. As dúvidas surgem, porém, quanto a qual a norma que será aplicável daqui em diante, na falta da norma declarada inconstitucional. Em princípio, como o artigo 22.º, n.º 1, d) da atual lei (Lei n.º 34/2013, de 16 de maio) substituiu o artigo 8.º, n.º 1, d) da antiga lei (Decreto-Lei n.º 35/2004, de 21 de fevereiro), deverá voltar a aplicar-se o artigo 8.º, n.º 1, d) da antiga lei (Decreto-Lei n.º 35/2004, de 21 de fevereiro), como se esse artigo nunca tivesse sido revogado. Ou seja, passará a exigirse ao administrador e gerente de empresas de segurança privada a prova de "Não ter sido condenado, por sentença transitada em julgado, pela prática de crime doloso contra a vida, a integridade física ou a reserva da vida privada, contra o património, de falsificação, contra a segurança das telecomunicações, contra a ordem e tranquilidade públicas, de resistência ou desobediência à autoridade pública, de detenção ilegal de armas ou por qualquer outro crime doloso punível com pena de prisão superior a 3 anos, sem prejuízo da reabilitação judicial".

Contudo, há argumentos no sentido de que a inconstitucionalidade do artigo 22.º, n.º 1, d) da atual lei (Lei n.º 34/2013, de 16 de maio) pode não implicar a repristinação (recuperação) do artigo 8.º, n.º 1, d) da antiga lei (Decreto-Lei n.º 35/2004, de 21 de fevereiro), caso em que, não se aplicando nenhuma das normas (uma por ter sido revogada e outra por ter sido declarada inconstitucional) deixariam de existir quaisquer condicionantes relativas à condenação por crimes. Dado que não cabe ao Tribunal Constitucional fixar os efeitos repristinatórios das suas decisões, tudo dependerá do entendimento que os tribunais e a Administração Pública venham a adotar no futuro, sendo que nada garante que o artigo 8.º, n.º 1, d) da antiga lei (Decreto- Lei n.º 35/2004, de 21 de fevereiro), no caso de voltar a ser aplicável, não venha a ser também declarado/julgado inconstitucional, se essa questão vier a ser colocada aos Tribunais. Note-se que essa hipótese não foi descartada pelo Acórdão aqui em exame, não estando também afastada a hipótese de o legislador intervir no futuro, elencando quais os crimes cuja condenação condiciona a concessão de autorização para o exercício da atividade de segurança privada.

Footnotes

1 Disponível aqui.

2 Lei n.º 34/2013, de 16 de maio.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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