Netherlands: Wijziging Kadasterbesluit - afscherming persoonsgegevens

Last Updated: 1 October 2018
Article by Martin Daverschot and Benjamin Jochemsen

Inleiding

Privacy ten aanzien van persoonsgegevens is meer dan ooit een hot item. Zeker door de Algemene verordening gegevensbescherming (AVG) die sinds 25 mei jl. van toepassing is, staan veel organisaties op scherp. Op 1 juli 2019 treedt bovendien een besluit in werking tot wijziging van het Kadasterbesluit. Deze wijziging ziet op de afscherming van bepaalde persoonsgegevens in de kadastrale registratie en is met name interessant voor deurwaarders, notarissen en bestuursorganen van de overheid. De wijziging betreft een toevoeging van een nieuw artikel (37a) in het Kadasterbesluit, die inhoudt dat persoonsgegevens van bepaalde personen gedurende 5 jaar door het Kadaster afgeschermd kunnen worden. In deze attendering wordt een korte toelichting gegeven op de belangrijkste aspecten van deze wijziging.

Kadasterwet

Persoonsgegevens zijn thans zeer makkelijk te achterhalen in de openbare registers die worden gehouden door het Kadaster. Ter illustratie; een afschrift met daarop eigendomsinformatie ten aanzien van een registergoed kost de aanvrager slechts € 2,40; de aanvrager krijgt daarvoor onder andere de adresgegevens van de eigenaar. Het is voor kwaadwillende personen dus gemakkelijk (althans, niet kostbaar) om gegevens van een potentieel 'slachtoffer' te achterhalen via het Kadaster. Op grond van de Kadasterwet kunnen door de overheid nadere beperkingen gesteld worden aan de door het Kadaster te verstrekken persoonsgegevens die in de openbare registers (waaronder de Basisregistratie Kadaster) raadpleegbaar zijn, dan wel de persoonsgegevens die voorkomen in de daarin geregistreerde en geboekte stukken en getuigschriften. Het toegevoegde artikel 37a Kadasterbesluit is een dergelijke beperking die op grond van de Kadasterwet mogelijk is. Het gaat hier om persoonsgegevens in de zin van de AVG, waarbij onder andere gedacht kan worden aan naam- en woonplaatsgegevens van personen in relatie tot registergoederen.

Beperkt kader

Opmerkelijk is dat de beperking slechts ziet op persoonsgegevens van personen die op grond van de Politiewet 2012 van overheidswege beschermd worden. Die wet kent twee verschillende groepen, te weten het zogenaamde rijksdomein en het decentrale domein. In de eerste groep is sprake van door de minister van Justitie en Veiligheid aangewezen personen, die door de rijksoverheid worden beschermd door bijvoorbeeld de inzet van politiebewaking. Voorbeelden zijn Nederlandse en andere strijdkrachten, alsmede politici, waarbij het nationaal belang een rol speelt. De tweede groep betreft personen die door de hoofdofficier van justitie zijn aangewezen en van wie de veiligheid valt onder de verantwoordelijkheid van de lokale overheid, die dezelfde beveiligingsmaatregelen kan treffen als de rijksoverheid. Op verzoek van de te beschermen persoon in kwestie, stelt het Kadaster vast of de betrokken persoon in een van voornoemde domeinen valt. In dat geval worden de persoonsgegevens 5 jaar beschermd, waarna verlenging met wederom 5 jaar mogelijk is. Blijkens de nota van toelichting op het besluit zijn de leden van het koninklijk huis uitgesloten van deze regeling, omdat afscherming van hun persoonsgegevens gezien de publieke functie die zij bekleden niet opportuun wordt geacht. Uit het verslag van de internetconsultatie blijkt voorts dat naar verwachting ten hoogste 250 personen voor deze regeling in aanmerking komen.

Praktijk

Voor de praktijk van deurwaarders, notarissen en bestuursorganen geldt dat het Kadaster bevoegd is om aan hen alsnog de betreffende afgeschermde persoonsgegevens af te geven. Bij de aanvraag dient aangegeven te worden op grond van welke wettelijke taak de gegevens opgevraagd worden en tevens welke persoonsgegevens daar daadwerkelijk voor benodigd zijn. Geheel in lijn met de AVG zal het Kadaster dus slechts de persoonsgegevens af dienen te geven die daadwerkelijk vereist zijn op grond van een wettelijk voorschrift. Persoonsgegevens die echter vóór de inwerkingtreding van onderhavig besluit aan derden zijn verstrekt, kunnen ook na die datum door die derden worden gebruikt. Hoe de procedure ten aanzien van een verzoek om afgeschermde persoonsgegevens bij het Kadaster exact eruit zal zien, is thans nog onbekend. Naar verwachting zal dat vóór 1 juli a.s. duidelijk worden.

Slot

Gesteld kan worden dat de wijziging een positieve eerste stap is in de afscherming van persoonsgegevens van personen die al van overheidswege beveiligd worden. Helaas ziet het wijzigingsbesluit slechts op die zeer beperkte doelgroep. Regelmatig horen wij vanuit de praktijk de oproep vanuit zeer vermogende cliënten, maar ook vanuit de 'gewone' burger die bijvoorbeeld 'off the radar' wenst te blijven voor diens ex-partner, om persoonsgegevens uit de notariële akte(n) te houden. Los van artikel 40 lid 2 (slot) van de Wet op het Notarisambt, die mogelijkheid biedt om met opgaaf van reden enkele persoonsgegevens niet in de akte te vermelden, biedt de wet op dit punt vooralsnog geen uitkomst voor deze gevallen.

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