Switzerland: Ferienlohn «inbegriffen»?

Last Updated: 29 June 2018
Article by Mauro Loosli

Das Bundesgericht hat bestätigt, dass Ferientage nur dann als im vereinbarten Stun-denlohn inbegriffen gelten können, wenn die Arbeitstätigkeit sehr unregelmässig ist und der Ferienlohn sowohl im Arbeitsvertrag als auch im Lohnausweis betrags- oder prozentmässig ausgewiesen wird.

In einem Entscheid vom 19. März 2018 (4A_561/2017) hat das Bundesgericht seine bisherige Rechtsprechung zur Frage, unter welchen Voraussetzungen Ferien bei Vereinbarung eines Stundenlohns durch einen zusätz-lichen Ferienlohn abgegolten werden können, in klarer Weise zusammengefasst und bestätigt.

Im vorliegenden Fall war im Arbeitsvertrag für eine Vollzeitstelle mit 42,5 wöchentlichen Arbeitsstunden ein Stundenlohn vereinbart und festgehalten worden, dass der Arbeitnehmer während den Ferien Anspruch auf seinen Lohn habe. Im Lohnausweis wurde zudem über dem Basis-Stundenlohn ein Ferienlohn von 8,33% ausgewiesen. Obwohl der Arbeitnehmer seine Ferien in natura bezogen hatte, machte er über ein Jahr nach Beendigung des Arbeitsverhältnisses im Jahre 2013 für die Jahre 2009 bis 2013 Ferienlohn im Betrag von über CHF 26'000.- geltend.

Die Klage des Arbeitnehmers wurde vom erstinstanzli-chen Gericht unter Hinweis darauf, dass der Arbeit-nehmer aufgrund des Lohnausweises erkennen konn-te, wie viel der Ferienlohn betrug, zuerst abgewiesen, vom zweitinstanzlichen kantonalen Gericht jedoch in Anwendung der bundesgerichtlichen Rechtsprechung gutgeheissen. Dagegen erhob der Arbeitgeber Be-schwerde an das Bundesgericht.

Art. 329d Abs. 2 OR sieht vor, dass Ferien während der Dauer des Arbeitsverhältnisses nicht durch Geldleis-tungen oder andere Vergünstigungen abgegolten wer-den dürfen. Von dieser Bestimmung darf nicht zuun-gunsten des Arbeitnehmers abgewichen werden. Dabei gilt als allgemeiner Grundsatz, dass der Ferienlohn im Zeitpunkt des Ferienbezugs ausgerichtet werden muss und es grundsätzlich unzulässig ist, die Ferienentschä-digung in den Gesamtlohn einzuschliessen.

Gemäss im vorliegenden Entscheid bestätigter bun-desgerichtlicher Rechtsprechung ist es ausnahmsweise zulässig, den auf die Ferien entfallenden Lohnanteil in den Gesamtlohn einzuschliessen, wenn folgende drei Bedingungen erfüllt sind:

  • Der Arbeitnehmer übt eine sehr unregelmässige Tätigkeit aus.
  • Der auf die Ferien entfallende Lohnanteil wird – wenn der Arbeitsvertrag schriftlich abgeschlossen wurde – klar und ausdrücklich betrags- oder pro-zentmässig im Arbeitsvertrag erwähnt. Ein einfa-cher Hinweis, dass der Ferienlohn im Lohn enthal-ten ist, genügt demnach nicht.
  • Der auf die Ferien entfallende Lohnanteil wird schliesslich in der periodischen Lohnabrechnung betrags- oder prozentmässig ausgewiesen.

Bei einem nur mündlich abgeschlossenen Arbeitsver-trag genügt es hingegen, wenn der auf die Ferien ent-fallende Lohnanteil aus der periodischen Lohnabrech-nung ersichtlich ist.

Sind diese Bedingungen nicht erfüllt, schuldet der Arbeitgeber den auf die Ferien entfallenden Lohn un-abhängig davon, ob der Arbeitnehmer Ferien bezogen hat oder nicht.

Im vorliegenden Fall waren zwei der drei oben genann-ten Bedingungen nicht erfüllt. Erstens sah der Arbeits-vertrag bei einem 100% Pensum eine wöchentliche Arbeitszeit von 42.5 Stunden vor, so dass bereits keine unregelmässige Tätigkeit vorliegen konnte. Zweitens war der auf die Ferien entfallende Lohnanteil im Ar-beitsvertrag nicht ausgewiesen worden.

Das Bundesgericht hielt zudem ausdrücklich fest, dass die Geltendmachung des Ferienlohns durch den Ar-beitnehmer nicht rechtsmissbräuchlich war, auch wenn dieser tatsächlich (unbezahlte) Ferien bezogen hatte und der ausbezahlte Stundenlohn effektiv eine Ferien-entschädigung enthielt und obwohl der Arbeitnehmer mit der Geltendmachung über ein Jahr nach Beendi-gung des Arbeitsverhältnisses zugewartet hatte.

Aus den genannten Gründen wurde die Beschwerde des Arbeitgebers abgewiesen und die vom Arbeitneh-mer geltend gemachte Forderung auf Auszahlung des Ferienlohns geschützt.

KOMMENTAR

Das vorliegende Bundesgerichtsurteil bestätigt einmal mehr, dass Ferienlohn nur dann als im Salär inbegriffen gelten kann, wenn drei Voraussetzungen erfüllt sind: Erstens muss eine unregelmässige Tätigkeit vorliegen, was bei Vereinbarung einer festen wöchentlichen Arbeitszeit in aller Regel nicht der Fall sein wird. Ferner muss der auf die Ferien entfallende Lohnanteil sowohl im Arbeitsvertrag als auch im Lohnausweis klar und ausdrücklich betrags- und/oder prozentmässig ausgewiesen sein. Diese Bedingungen sind insbesondere bei Vereinbarung eines Stundenlohns strikte zu beachten. Sind sie nicht erfüllt, riskiert ein Arbeitgeber auch nach Beendigung des Arbeitsverhältnisses und trotz Auszahlung eines Ferienlohnanteils und effektivem Ferienbezug, dem Arbeitnehmer nachträglich den Ferienlohn ein zweites Mal ausrichten zu müssen.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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