Spain: Impresión 3D y Propiedad Intelectual

Last Updated: 16 April 2018
Article by Jorge Pumariega

Ante el desarrollo creciente de una tecnología surge la necesidad de conocer si ésta encaja dentro del actual marco legal o si, por el contrario, no encontramos una regulación adecuada de la materia

Pues bien, en el caso que ahora nos planteamos, tenemos unas cuantas consideraciones que queremos compartir con todos ustedes porque esta tecnología se encuentra en pleno desarrollo desde que vio la luz allá en 1986 cuando a Charles W. Hull se le otorgó el registro de su patente en los Estados Unidos de América para proteger lo que fue la primera máquina sobre la tecnología que hoy comentamos.

En primer lugar, por impresión en tres dimensiones, debemos precisar que nos referimos tanto a la fabricación aditiva o por capas, que se efectúa por la descarga de un archivo CAD, a una impresora 3D, la cual, tras añadir el material oportuno, reproduciría el objeto capa por capa como a la impresión líquida continua que es otra de las técnicas de impresión que se está adoptando recientemente. Prácticamente no van a quedar objetos que no puedan imprimirse en 3D, encontrándonos desde un plato de comida elaborado, a una prenda de vestir, alas más de mil piezas impresas en 3D que contiene el nuevo Airbus A350 XWB o a las férulas impresas en 3D que pueden llegar a sustituir a las escayolas tradicionales de inmovilización. De ahí que nos encontremos ante casos tanto de posibles reproducciones "caseras" que podrían imprimirse en el hogar como reproducciones de tipo "industrial" que sólo cabe efectuar dentro de una gran compañía.

Cuando observamos este tipo de impresión en 3D hay dos momentos o fases donde cabe plantearse un cuestionamiento jurídico de la cuestión. En primer término, en la fase de modelación del objeto tridimensional que luego se imprimirá y en, segundo término, cuando el objeto es impreso y puesto en circulación.

Por lo que respecta a la primera de las etapas, en la fase de modelar el objeto, nos encontramos con numerosos supuestos que pueden ir desde la posibilidad de que el archivo 3D sea completamente original con lo que, nace per sé, un derecho de autor sobre el mismo, a que la obra resulte ser una modificación a partir de otra original previa, estando ante un caso de obra derivada, o a que el objeto previo no sea original, supuesto en el que menos o ningún conflicto legal tendríamos. Otro tipo de casos se plantean cuando se nos proponen diseños para que uno los personalice, encontrándonos en ese caso con un reconocimiento de autoría original más otros derechos de los co-creadores que participan en el diseño del archivo 3D.

Reproduciendo obras protegidas por derechos de autor nos volvemos a encontrar con toda una colección de posibles casos donde lo que plantea la discusión principal es, si la distribución de la obra agota o no el derecho de autor. Así, cuando se transmite online el archivo 3D, lo verdaderamente más común, debemos recomendarles que establezcan muy bien las condiciones bajo las que ponen ese archivo a disposición del tercero, porque serán esas condiciones, las que nos ofrezcan una primera solución, acerca del posible agotamiento del derecho de autor.

A su vez, dando el paso siguiente, al imprimir el archivo 3D, con el objeto ya reproducido físicamente, entramos en la segunda fase de lo indicado más arriba, debiendo volver a centrarnos en qué uso se nos está permitiendo con dicha impresión. Si hay un uso plenamente privado no habría, en principio, una potencial vulneración de derechos, pero, ¿cabe afirmar lo mismo cuando hay una impresión para ser vendido el objeto a terceros? Las condiciones de adquisición del archivo nos permitirán conocer si esto nos estaría autorizado o no.

En consecuencia, ¿necesitamos un nuevo derecho de autor ante esta realidad? O más bien, ¿resulta suficiente con que las categorías legales recojan esta nueva realidad tecnológica?, ¿o realmente es hasta necesario que la norma escrita recoja esta nueva realidad de lo que es la impresión en 3D? El dilema de siempre del Derecho, ¿hay normativa adecuada y suficiente como para regular una circunstancia de hecho que no fue pensada por el legislador cuando se estaba y se está desarrollando esta tecnología? Si nos centramos en el caso español, ¿resultaría adecuada una normativa únicamente nacional cuando estamos dentro del marco legal de la Unión Europea, y la realidad de la red nos permite actuar simultáneamente en distintos países? Desde nuestro punto de vista, el verdadero problema parecería estar en lo que son los límites del derecho de autor, con la explotación de las obras, las exclusiones con las que cuenta este derecho, en definitiva, cuando la tecnología puede estar en condiciones de que el autor no tenga siempre la capacidad técnica de impedir una distribución y explotación de su obra.

Y, en la actualidad, antes de que cualquier empresa o cualquier particular tenga una impresora 3D sería muy oportuno abrir y extender un debate jurídico acerca del uso adecuado de una tecnología que afecta de lleno a los derechos de Propiedad Intelectual e Industrial


Clarke, Modet & Co - SPAIN


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