Spain: España Ante El Espejo De La PII 2018

Last Updated: 24 January 2018
Article by Benjamín Martínez

España: Sigue suspensa en patentes, mantiene el notable en marcas, pasa de aprobado a notable en diseños y de sobresaliente a aprobado en variedades vegetales

Según el informe que recientemente ha publicado la OMPI[1], si nos fijamos en los indicadores que mejor reflejan el verdadero valor de los registros de Propiedad Industrial en el mercado, señalan que España, 14º país por PIB, ni aparece en el ranking del top 20 de países en patentes (liderado por Estados Unidos). Pero no comencemos el año con malas noticias que ya nos son de sobra conocidas, ya que España es la 7ª potencial mundial en marcas (Ranking liderado por Alemania), la 8ª en diseños (liderado por primera vez por China) y la 11ª en variedades vegetales (liderado por Holanda).

Como cada final de año, la OMPI hizo público los "Indicadores Mundiales de Propiedad Intelectual e Industrial" con los datos de 2016, uno de los informes más completos y actualizados que se publican.

Casi todos los medios se han hecho eco de las líneas maestras que muestra este estudio; el incremento en 2016 a nivel mundial de un 8,3% de las solicitudes de patentes (7,8% en 2015), 13,5% de las de marcas (15,3% en 2015) y 8,3%  de los diseños (2,3% en 2015) y, como el año anterior, liderando el pódium de solicitudes de patentes China, seguida de Estados Unidos de América y Japón. China también lidera el ranking de solitudes de marcas y diseños y sólo falla en variedades vegetales, ocupando una segunda posición[2].

¿Y España? Según este informe ocupa en el ranking el puesto 22 en patentes, 15 en marcas (perdimos un puesto respecto a 2015) y 10 en diseños. Siendo como es España el 14 país por PIB[3] y 11 en producción científica, ¿Estamos en la posición que nos corresponde?.

En patentes claramente no, peor aún, el nivel de patentes no ha dejado de descender en los últimos años, de hecho, nuestro servicio de predicción nos indica que en 2017 se marcará el peor dato de la serie histórica, nunca en la historia de la "patente moderna en España" se han solicitado menos patentes españolas per cápita, bien es cierto que la Nueva Ley de Patentes en vigor desde el 1 de abril de 2017 ha acelerado esta caída, aunque por efecto de esta misma Ley deberíamos haber ganado en calidad de las patentes presentadas en España.

Sin embrago, muchos autores[4] nos advierten que puede que estos rankings no reflejen una imagen fiel, una cosa es la mayor o menor propensión a utilizar las figuras de Propiedad Industrial que tienen los solicitantes, y que varía mucho entre países, donde los costes, las facilidades/obligaciones normativas,... e incluso la costumbre o cultura pueden ser un factor clave, y otra cosa es la productividad de estas figuras que, en su opinión, registra mejor el verdadero valor de estos registros en el mercado o retorno para sus titulares. En el área de patentes la gran mayoría aboga por utilizar el indicador de patentes triádicas como el indicador que mejor recoge este valor de productividad[5]. Mas este indicador sólo es de patentes y se publica con gran retraso[6], así que algunos de estos autores[7] también sugieren que las solicitudes de figuras de propiedad industrial en otros países más allá de los que es originario el solicitante podrían ser una buena medida de la productividad y eliminaría, en cierta manera, la distorsiones que provoca la propensión mayor o menor  a utilizar estas figuras por los mismos.

La misma OMPI en su informe publica otras estadísticas que podrían arrojar luz sobre este tema. Por un lado publica los datos de solicitudes que se realizan fuera de país del solicitante y por otra parte elimina la distorsión que supone utilizar figuras regionals[8], como puede ser la Marca en la Unión Europea.

Para comenzar el año, intentemos ser optimistas. Si nos atenemos a estos criterios España:

  • En patentes sigue sin aparecer en el ranking de los top 20 países (en el año 2013 estaba en la 18ª posición).
  • En Marcas quedaría en 7ª posición (en el año 2015 estaba en la 6ª posición)
  • En Diseños en 8ª posición (en el año 2015 estaba en la 9ª posición y en 2012 en la 7ª)
  • En variedades vegetales 11ª posición (en el año 2015 estaba en la 6ª posición y en 2012 en la 10ª posición)

 Y el resto del mundo, ¿cómo está según este criterio?

Probablemente uno podrá pensar que China mantiene esta posición hegemónica casi global, pero como muestra ver que, según la OMPI, sólo el 2,9% de sus familias de patentes están orientadas al exterior (en 2015 era el 3,2), a diferencia de EE.UU. donde estas alcanzan el 45,9 (en 2015 era 52%) o España con un 47,7 (en 2015 era el 46,9%).

 Al analizar este nuevo indicador que proponemos podemos ver que los líderes mundiales en cada figura son:

  • En patentes Estados Unidos
  • En marcas Alemania
  • En diseños, y por primera vez, China, adelantando a Alemania[9]
  • En variedades vegetales Holanda

Muchos podrán pensar que este criterio de equivalencia beneficia a los países con figuras regionales, si no lo tuviéramos en cuenta este criterio de equivalencia cambiaría sólo levemente este podium[10]:

  • En marcas Estados unidos adelanta a Alemania
  • En diseños Estados Unidos reemplaza en esta posición a China
  • En variedades vegetales Holanda se mantiene en la primera posición

Si analizásemos estos dos indicadores de productividad, con y sin el criterio de equivalencia, y ponderásemos la importancia de cada figura, podríamos elaborar un indicador compuesto que reflejara la real posición de España en el Mundo, ocupando el 14ª puesto en el ranking mundial, y si no tenemos en cuenta las patentes, el 11ª.

 Demos un mensaje optimista para este nuevo año, conocemos bien nuestras fortalezas y nuestras debilidades viendo estos indicadores de Propiedad Industrial, trabajemos en mejorarlos ya que todos estos indicadores no tendrían una relevancia especial si no supiéramos que guardan una relación directa sobre otros índices esenciales para el país, destacando los asociados a la competitividad

 Footnotes

[1] Organización Mundial de la Propiedad Intelectual

[2] La primera posición está ocupada por Holanda.

[3] Datos del FMI para 2016

[4] La discusión entre el concepto de propensión a patentar vs. productividad de la patente, analizada tanto regionalmente como sectorialmente, es un área sobre la que han trabajado muchos autores, por citar algunos Duguet y Kabla (1997), Brouwer y Kleinknecht (1999), Dernis y Guellec (2001), Peeters y van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie (2006), Duguet y Lelarge (2006) van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie y de Rassenfosse (2009) o Mairesse y Mohnen (2010).

[5] Dernis y Guellec (2001) y de Rassenfosse et al. (2009).   Concluyen los autores que el concepto de patentes triádicas es el más adecuado para calcular la productividad de las patentes.

[6] Actualmente en la página de la OCDE sólo está disponible hasta el año 2015, y España ocupa la 21 posición, habiendo retrocedido durante estos años a los niveles que maraca en 2003.

[7] Y de Rassenfosse et al. (2009).  

[8] Utilizando el criterio del "Equivalent application": Applications at regional offices are equivalent to multiple applications, one in each of the states that is a member of those offices. To calculate the number of equivalent applications for the Benelux Office for Intellectual Property (BOIP), the Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO), the African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI), the Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC Patent Office) and the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO), each application is multiplied by the corresponding number of member states. For European Patent Office (EPO) and African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) data, each application is counted as one application abroad if the applicant does not reside in a member state or as one resident and one application abroad if the applicant resides in a member state. The equivalent application concept is used for reporting data by origin.

[9] Es un teme interesante a estudiar, por ejemplo es curioso observar como en España, de los 10 mayores solicitantes de diseños españoles en 2016, 7 son de origen chino.

http://www.oepm.es/export/sites/oepm/comun/documentos_relacionados/Memorias_de_Actividades_y_Estadisticas/Memorias_de_actividades/Memoria_de_Actividades_OEPM_2016_baja_resol.pdf .

[10] La wipo no publica datos para patentes sin este criterio de equivalencia


Clarke, Modet & Co - SPAIN


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