Indonesia: Itikad Tidak Baik dalam Pendaftaran Merek

Last Updated: 3 August 2017
Article by Agus Candra Suratmaja and Hardi Nurcahyo

Istilah itikad tidak baik dalam pendaftaran merek dapat kita temukan di dalam Pasal 4 UU No 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek yaitu "Merek tidak dapat didaftar atas dasar Permohonan yang diajukan oleh Pemohon yang beritikad tidak baik".

Adapun penjelasan Pasal 4 tersebut diatas adalah :

Pemohon yang beritikad baik adalah Pemohon yang mendaftarkan Mereknya secara layak dan jujur tanpa ada niat apapun untuk membonceng, meniru atau menjiplak ketenaran Merek pihak lain demi kepentingan usahanya yang berakibat kerugian pada pihak lain itu atau menimbulkan kondisi persaingan curang, mengecoh atau menyesatkan konsumen. Sebagai contoh, Merek dagang A yang sudah dikenal masyarakat secara umum sejak bertahun-tahun ditiru sedemikian rupa sehingga memiliki persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan merek dagang A tersebut. Dalam contoh itu sudah terjadi itikad tidak baik dari peniru karena setidak-tidaknya patut diketahui unsur kesengajaannya dalam meniru Merek Dagang yang sudah dikenal tersebut.

Penjelasan lebih lanjut mengenai niat untuk membonceng, meniru atau menjiplak ketenaran Merek pihak lain dijelaskan dalam beberapa Yurisprudensi sebagai berikut yaitu : putusan No. 1269 L/Pdt/1984 tanggal 15 Januari 1986, putusan No. 220 PK/Perd/1981 tanggal 16 Desember 1986 dan putusan No. 1272 K/Pdt/1984 tanggal 15 Januari 1987, Mahkamah Agung berpendapat bahwa pemilik merek beritikad tidak baik, karena telah menggunakan merek yang terbukti sama pada pokoknya atau sama pada keseluruhannya dengan merek pihak lawannya. Disitu telah terjadi peniruan merek yang sah milik orang lain.1

Berdasarkan Penjelasan dan Yurisprudensi diatas, maka seseorang dapat dikatakan mendaftarkan mereknya dengan itikad tidak baik jika bertentangan dengan Pasal 6 UU No. 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek :

Pasal 6

  1. Permohonan harus ditolak oleh Direktorat Jenderal apabila Merek tersebut :

    1. mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan Merek milik pihak lain yang sudah terdaftar lebih dahulu untuk barang dan/atau jasa yang sejenis.
    2. mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan Merek yang sudah terkenal milik pihak lain untuk barang dan/atau sejenisnya.
    3. Mempunyai persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan indikasi-geografis yang sudah dikenal.
  2. Ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) huruf b dapat pula diberlakukan terhadap barang dan/atau jasa yang tidak sejenis sepanjang memenuhi persyaratan tertentu yang akan ditetapkan lebih lanjut dengan Peraturan Pemerintah.
  3. Permohonan juga harus ditolak oleh Direktorat Jenderal apabila Merek tersebut :

    1. merupakan atau menyerupai nama orang terkenal, foto, atau nama badan hukum yang dimiliki orang lain, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari yang berhak.
    2. merupakan tiruan atau menyerupai nama atau singkatan nama, bendera, lambang atau symbol atau emblem negara atau lembaga nasional maupun internasional, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari pihak yang berwenang.
    3. merupakan tiruan atau menyerupai tanda atau cap atau stempel resmi yang digunakan oleh

negara atau lembaga Pemerintah, kecuali atas persetujuan tertulis dari pihak yang berwenang.

Seseorang dapat diduga mendaftarkan mereknya dengan itikad tidak baik jika seseorang tersebut tidak memiliki niat sama sekali untuk mempergunakan mereknya untuk kegiatan perdagangan barang atau jasa dan hanya bermaksud untuk menghalang-halangi pemilik merek terkenal yang belum mendaftarkannya di Indonesia, sehingga pemilik merek terkenal tersebut tidak dapat mendaftarkannya di Indonesia. Hal ini sesuai dengan Pasal 6 ayat (1) b diatas dan juga dihubungkan dengan Pasal 61 ayat (2) huruf a yang berbunyi "Merek tidak digunakan selama 3 (tiga) tahun berturut-turut dalam perdagangan barang dan/atau jasa sejak tanggal pendaftaran atau pemakaian terakhir, kecuali apabila ada alasan yang dapat diterima oleh Direktorat Jenderal". Maka seseorang yang beritikad baik dalam mendaftarkan mereknya maka dia harus memiliki niat untuk mempergunakan mereknya dalam perdagangan barang atau jasa.

Sedangkan Itikad tidak baik dalam pendaftaran merek di dalam undang-undang Merek dan terbaru yaitu UU No. 20 Tahun 2016 tentang Merek dan Indikasi Geografis, diatur di dalam Pasal 21 ayat (3) yang berbunyi : "Permohonan ditolak jika diajukan oleh Pemohon yang beriktikad tidak baik".

Pengertian Itikad tidak baik di dalam UU No. 20 Tahun 2016 dinyatakan sebagai berikut :

Yang dimaksud dengan "Pemohon yang beriktikad tidak baik" adalah Pemohon yang patut diduga dalam mendaftarkan Mereknya memiliki niat untuk meniru, menjiplak, atau mengikuti Merek pihak lain demi kepentingan usahanya, menimbulkan kondisi persaingan usaha tidak sehat, mengecoh, atau menyesatkan konsumen. Contohnya Permohonan Merek bentuk tulisan, lukisan, logo, atau susunan warna yang sama dengan Merek milik pihak lain atau Merek yang sudah dikenal masyarakat secara umum sejak bertahun-tahun, ditiru sedemikian rupa sehingga memiliki persamaan pada pokoknya atau keseluruhannya dengan Merek yang sudah dikenal tersebut. Dari contoh tersebut sudah terjadi iktikad tidak baik dari Pemohon karena setidak-tidaknya patut diketahui adanya unsur kesengajaan dalam meniru Merek yang sudah dikenal tersebut.

Berdasarkan Pasal 77 ayat 2 UU No. 20 Tahun 2016 dinyatakan bahwa :

Gugatan pembatalan dapat diajukan tanpa batas waktu jika terdapat unsur iktikad tidak baik dan/atau Merek yang bersangkutan bertentangan dengan ideologi negara, peraturan perundang-undangan, moralitas, agama, kesusilaan, dan ketertiban umum.

Sedangkan Gugatan Pembatalan Merek berdasarkan adanya itikad tidak baik di Pasal 69 ayat (1) UU No. 15 Tahun 2001 gugatan hanya dibatasi 5 tahun saja, dan pada ayat (2) dijelaskan bahwa gugatan tanpa batas waktu hanya diberikan untuk merek-merek yang hanya bertentangan dengan moralitas agama, kesusilaan atau ketertiban umum dan tidak memasukan adanya unsure itikad tidak baik.

Pasal 77 ayat 2 di dalam UU No 20 Tahun 2016 yang memasukan Gugatan pembatalan dapat diajukan tanpa batas waktu jika terdapat unsur iktikad tidak baik ini telah menjadikan UU No. 20 Tahun 2016 lebih ketat terhadap adanya merek-merek yang didaftar karena adanya itikad tidak baik. Sehingga, Pasal 77 ayat 2 ini memberikan kesempatan tanpa batasan waktu kepada pihak penggugat untuk melakukan gugatan karena itikad tidak baik.

Footnote

1. RR. PUTRI AYU PRIAMSARI, Tesis : "Penerapan Itikad Baik Sebagai Alasan Pembatalan Merek Menurut Undang-Undang Nomor 15 Tahun 2001 Tentang Merek (Di Tingkat Peninjauan Kembali)" (Semarang : UNDIP, 2010), 131.

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