United Arab Emirates: FIDIC And The ENAA: A Careful Comparison

Last Updated: 25 July 2017
Article by STA Law Firm
Most Read Contributor in United Arab Emirates, December 2018

In the complex and technical world of construction and large manufacturing projects, the contracts and negotiations on the terms of an agreement between the parties are a means to keep the complex relation of parties within the bounds of clear understanding by utilizing a standard form of contract. The industry has seen the development of a various standard form of contract including, FIDIC (Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils), JCT (Joint Contracts Tribunal), ENAA (Engineering Advancement Association of Japan), ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers), etc. This list is not exhaustive but only indicative as there are numerous standard forms. We will discuss the standard form of contract produced by FIDIC and ENAA. 

The FIDIC standard form of contract is internationally recognized and a utilized form of contract. FIDIC, established in 1913 by three countries namely Belgium, France, and Switzerland presently covers 97 countries as its member and has created forms of contract which are used extensively throughout the world. ENAA is a non-profit organization established in 1978 with the support of the Ministry of International Trade & Industry of Japan. Members of ENAA consist of 217 Companies (as of April 2016). The aims of the above organizations, in general, are to achieve inclusive, dynamic and sustainable development while having a voice for engineering professionals and, among other things, provide integrated assistance. 


1. FIDIC  - The  Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils:  FIDIC has the best-known standard contracts which are as follows:

  • The Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction (Red Book, 1987 First Edition, revised in 1999).
  • Conditions of Contract for Electrical and (for) Mechanical Works including Erection on Site (Yellow Book, 1987 First Edition, revised in 1999).
  • Conditions of Contract for Design-Build and Turnkey (Orange Book, 1995).
  • Conditions of Contract for EPC Turnkey Projects (Silver Book, 1999 First Edition).
  • Conditions for Design, Build and Operate contracts (Gold Book, 2007).
  • Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build (Yellow book, 1999 First Edition).
  • Conditions of Contract for i) Design, ii) Build and iii) Operate (the DBO) Projects (DBO Contract, 2008 First Edition).

Other FIDIC contracts which are less known are the Turquoise Book for Dredging and Reclamation Works (January 2006), and also, the White Book Model Services Agreement (October 2006)


ENAA also has model forms which are increasingly used by the industry recently in the past 12 years. The forms are as follows:

  • International Contract for Process Plant Construction (1986 – First Edition, revised in 1992 and 2010)
  • International Contract for Power Plant Construction (Turnkey Lump-sum Basis) (1996 – Second Edition, revised in 2012)
  • International Contract for Engineering, Procurement and Supply for Plant Construction (EPS type contract) (2007 Edition, revised in 2013) 

General Comparisons

The content structure of the FIDIC forms of contracts often consists of general conditions, forms of tender and contract agreement, guidance for the preparation of the particular conditions, and dispute adjudication agreements. The ENAA model forms' in its latest Process Model Form – 2010 edition consists of a form of contract, general conditions, and guide notes. Wherein Volume 2 includes a sample of an appendix, Volume 4 consist of work procedures and Volume 5 consists of the general conditions and the form of agreement (an alternative form of industrial plant – without process license). The Power Model Form - 2012 edition consists of a form of agreement, and general conditions and Volume 2 provides a sample of appendices to the agreement.

Although the FIDIC forms seem to be very well drafted "by the engineers for the engineers," is seemingly balanced, have many provisions, and are very extensive, they bring out the fact that legal layman draft such contracts. ENAA is written well with clear, precise, and short wordings. For the purpose of this article, with consideration to its possible limitations, we shall be comparing between FIDIC's Yellow (Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build, 1999 – First Edition) and ENAA's Power Plant Construction Form – 2012.  However, there can be references in general to other forms, when stated otherwise. Where the Yellow book is for Plant and Design Build, ENAA's Power Plant construction model form is a turnkey form for BOT (build-operate-transfer) projects.

Data Accuracy Obligations

In the yellow and silver book under Sub-Clause 4.10 Site Data, there seem to be no obligations on an employer regarding an error in data provided by him. However, the responsibility for proper interpretation of information is put on the contractor as below text interprets:

 "The Contractor shall be responsible for (and) interpreting all such data."

Further, it sets out:

"To the extent which was practicable (taking into account the cost and time), the Contractor shall be deemed to have obtained all (relevant; and) necessary information as to (inherent) risks, the contingencies and (all) the other circumstances which may influence or affect the Tender or Works. To the same extent, the Contractor shall be deemed to have inspected and examined the Site, its surroundings, the above data and other available information, and to have been satisfied before submitting the Tender as to all relevant matters,...."

The above words clearly indicate that the responsibility is put on the contractor as the contractor is responsible for obtaining necessary information. Which includes but is not limited to the form and nature of the site, including the hydrological and climatic conditions, subsurface conditions, and the extent and nature of the work and goods that are necessary for executing and completing the works for remedying of any defects. Though the provision states that when "taking account of cost and time" it becomes highly difficult to determine such factors of time and "practicability." Thereby rendering the provisions uncertain without laying down a clear responsibility on the employer for any information provided. Thus, the above clause and in fact the entire yellow book does not foresee any obligation on an employer for inaccurate information and even fails to place responsibility on an employer for correct information.

Whereas the ENAA provisions under General Conditions 10.1 states that:

"The Owner(s) shall ensure (at all times) the correctness and exactitude of (each and;) all information and or data to be (provided; or) supplied by the Owner(s) as described in Appendix 9-3 (Scope of Works and Supply by the Owner(s)) except when otherwise expressly stated in the Contract,"

As such it is clear that the ENAA form makes it the responsibility of an employer/owner to provide correct data before and during the contract.

Accordingly, the contractor bears a heavy burden of not only accessing accurate data provided by the employer but also bears the responsibility for any physical condition1{C}{C} Under the definition of unforeseeable{C}.2When this occurs, foreseeability will depend again on examination by the contractor.

Employer's Requirements

As per Sub-Clause 1.9, an experienced contractor should give notice to the Engineer who will be entitled to the terms of Sub-Clause 20.1 [Contractor's Claims] when the contractor fails to discover errors in an employer's requirements. These errors would get overlooked while exercising due care and scrutiny of the Employer's Requirements under Sub-Clause 5.1 [General Design Obligations]. 

Further, "the Engineer shall proceed in accordance with Sub-Clause 3.5 [Determinations] to agree or determine (i) whether and (if so) to what extent the error could not reasonably have been so discovered."  

The yellow book or other such forms having similar provisions place a heavy burden on the contractor to review the employer's requirements at the tender stage. Further, as per every variation.3Bearing in mind that from time to time to examine the employer's requirements before providing a tender and examinations without emphasizing on the obligation of an employer for such errors or on the engineer while evaluating the requirements issued by the employer.  It is pertinent to note that providing the employer's need is a factor in the control of employer which is published as per his ideas and concept of the project along with all technical and quality consideration which must also be a proper valuation of the contract price. Therefore, it is the employer who must retain responsibility for the definition and description of the works. Failing such demarcation and allocation of liability creates doubts as to the practical implementation of such provisions. 

The above provision of Sub-Clause 1.9 further seems contrary to clause 5.4 which states as:

"5.4 Technical Standards and the Regulations: The design, the Contractor's (each and all) Documents, the execution and the completed Works shall (in totality) comply with the Country's technical standards, the building, construction and (also;) environmental Laws, Laws applicable to the product being produced from the Works, and other standards specified in the Employer's Requirements, applicable to the Works, or defined by the applicable Laws."

The above states that the design and contractor's documents must be in accordance with employer's requirement. However, the responsibility of errors in employer's requirement is not enforceable or even actionable against the employer under this form of contract. Further, only if it is determined to be undiscoverable by the engineer the contractor will be entitled to cost and extension of time.

The ENAA model form under General Conditions Sub-Clause 27.3 - Defect Liability states:

"The Contractor's obligations under this GC 27 shall not apply to ..........................(3) any designs, specifications or other data designed, supplied or specified by or on behalf of the Owner, or any matters for which the Contractor has disclaimed responsibility hereunder ."

The above clause excludes the liability of the contractor on design discrepancies, errors or omissions if such erroneous specification, drawing or such technical documents are prepared due to inaccurate information provided by or on behalf of the employer. The ENAA form also provides that the contractor shall make reasonable site examination and other data, however, puts the obligation on the employer for inaccuracy. This clause in is accordance with the principle of the risk of liability being placed on the party who can control such risk.

Part II of this two series article will discuss Design obligations, force majeure, and other relevant provisions. 


1  Sub-Clause 4.12 provides. For example, "physical conditions" means natural physical conditions and those that are man-made. Further, other pollutants and physical obstructions which the Contractor may encounter at the Site while executing the Works. These include sub-surface and hydrological conditions but exclude weather.

2  in sub-clause climatic conditions are not included. "Unforeseeable" is defined as unreasonably foreseeable by an experienced Contractor on the date of submission of the Tender.

3  , "Variation" means changes to the Employer's Requirements or the Works, which are instructed or approved as a Variation under Clause 13 [Variations and Adjustments].

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions