Nicaragua: Nicaragua: Energía Hidroeléctrica, expectativas de desarrollo e inversión 2017-2018

Last Updated: 7 July 2017
Article by Fidel Sanchez

 Nicaragua tiene un potencial de energía hidroeléctrica de aprox. 2000 MW., leyes muy bien definidas para el desarrollo y explotación de los recursos hídricos, entre ellas, la Ley 620 "Ley de Aguas nacionales", Ley 467 "Ley de promoción al sub-sector hidroeléctrico", entre otras leyes. La promoción de esta importante fuente de energía es fundamental, considerando que la energía hidroeléctrica es invulnerable a las sacudidas y altibajos de precios de la energía provenientes de los combustibles fósiles, lo que puede contribuir -a mediano plazo- a la seguridad y estabilidad energética del país.

Si bien el ciclo de puesta en marcha de un proyecto hidroeléctrico no es corto e implica varios aspectos técnicos y sociales a tener en cuenta, una vez construida la central hidroeléctrica, los costos de operación son relativamente bajos, y se trata de una energía con bajos índices de contaminación ambiental, ya que no produce gases, ni emisiones tóxicas.

Nicaragua requiere además equilibrar y diversificar su matriz energética, ya que un sistema energético equilibrado, en que diversas fuentes de energía coexistan -esencialmente renovables: hidroeléctrica, geotérmica, eólica, solar- contribuye en gran medida a la eficiencia energética y a evitar -a mediano plazo- inesperados apagones, producto de los colapsos de los sistemas energéticos poco diversificados y altamente dependientes de un solo factor climático o exógeno.

De allí que la energía hidroeléctrica es necesaria junto con otras fuentes de energía, para el equilibrio del sistema energético.

En Nicaragua, la energía hidroeléctrica supone aprox. el 10% de la matriz energética actual, pero según proyecciones oficiales a 2030, este porcentaje deberá aumentar al menos al 40% de la matriz energética global.

Existen varios proyectos hidroeléctricos en etapa de estudios de factibilidad, principalmente en la cuenca del Río Grande de Matagalpa y cuenca del Río Coco, entre ellos el Proyecto San Pedro del Norte (75 MW), Boboké (97 MW), Mojolka (105 MW), Wanawas (81 MW), Paso Real (22 MW), Masapa (34 MW), Corriente Lira (33 MW) y Paraska (59 MW), por mencionar algunos, según fuentes oficiales.

Un factor relevante a tomar en cuenta, de acuerdo a la Ley 620 "Ley de Aguas nacionales" en su artículo 84 del reglamento es que los proyectos hidroeléctricos de más de 30 megavatios o cuyo embalse tenga en su nivel máximo de operación un área mayor a 25 kilómetros cuadrados de extensión, deben contar con una Ley Especial o Ley Específica de desarrollo de proyecto.

Por otro lado, los proyectos de desarrollo que se lleven a cabo mediante asociación público-privada, con base en la Ley 935 Ley de Asociación Público-Privada y su reciente reglamento aprobado en marzo 2017, se deberán suscribir mediante contratos entre el inversionista nacional o extranjero y la institución gubernamental contratante, luego de haberse cumplido con un proceso licitatorio estipulado en dicho reglamento. Dentro de los requisitos de dichos contratos de asociación público-privada, está la conformación de una Sociedad Mercantil de "objeto único" por el inversionista, una vez adjudicado el Proyecto al inversionista, con la cual se firmará el Contrato ante la Notaría del Estado, y la consecuente aprobación mediante Ley de dicho Contrato, de conformidad al art. 53 del referido reglamento.

Apostar por la energía hidroeléctrica traerá a Nicaragua cuantiosos beneficios económicos, ambientales y de eficiencia del sistema energético, y Nicaragua tiene altas expectativas de desarrollo social y de infraestructura a través de los proyectos hidroeléctricos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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