Colombia: Los Proyectos De Intereses Nacional Y La Sentencia C-035 De 2016 De La Honorable Corte Constitucional

Last Updated: 9 November 2016
Article by Iván Andrés Páez Páez

Gran conmoción se ha vivido en el país y particularmente por parte los entendidos del derecho ambiental y los recursos naturales renovables con ocasión del advenimiento de la sentencia C-035 de 2016 por parte de la Honorable Corte Constitucional, pues se ha marcado un hito en nuestra jurisprudencia, al establecer como supremo valor constitucional la protección y conservación del ambientes y los recursos naturales renovables por encima incluso de otros tantos como la seguridad jurídica. Con lo cual, la Honorable Corte Constitucional cimienta lo que parece es una avanzada y sólida jurisprudencia en materia de derecho ambiental.

Fueron varios los tópicos a los que se refirió la citada jurisprudencia C-035 de 2016, minería, hidrocarburos y paramos, aspectos sobre los cuales la jurisprudencia ya se había pronunciado en otras sentencias, que al igual que ésta han generado todo tipo de opiniones. Sin embargo, ésta sentencia resultó novedosa en tanto que se refirió a los Proyectos de Interés Nacional y Estratégicos – PINE, particularmente a lo establecido en el artículo 51 de la Ley 1753 de 2015, por medio de la cual se expidió el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014-2018 "Todos por un nuevo país".

El citado artículo 51 expresaba que con relación a los proyectos que ostentaran la calidad de Proyectos de Interés Nacional y Estratégicos – PINE la licencia y permisos ambientales serían de competencia exclusiva de la Autoridad Nacional de Licencias Ambientales.

Este precepto normativo al ser analizado por la Honorable Corte Constitucional fue declarado inexequible, por considerar, según lee en su comunicado de prensa No. 04 de 2016, contrario a la autonomía de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales y los principios de gradación normativa y rigor subsidiario, uno y otro, estandartes de la descentralización administrativa. En otras palabras, el supremo Tribunal Constitucional considero que marginar del conocimiento de los Proyectos de Interés Nacional y Estratégicos – PINE a las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales implica en palabras de la Honorable Corte Constitucional (...) un desconocimiento del deber de protección del medio ambiente en lo territorial (...)

Contrario a tal postura y en lo que parece ser un vestigio de lo que otrora fue la postura de la Honorable Corte Constitucional de la prevalencia de la seguridad jurídica como postulado esencial del ordenamiento jurídico el salvamento de voto contentivo en la sentencia C-035 de 206, según el cual, nombrado artículo 51 debió haber sido declarado exequible, en tanto que tal precepto es fruto de la potestad reglamentaria que le asiste al legislador, es este caso especifico en lo que atañe la competencia de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales, lo cual es constitucionalmente válido en tanto que es al legislador a quien le corresponde por el propio mandato de la Constitución hacer este tipo de discriminaciones positivas, máxima si con la misma se busca igualmente la protección de los recursos naturales renovables y el ambiente.

Finaliza el salvamento de voto dejando entrever lo que serán en lo sucesivo las discusiones en el seno de la Honorable Corte Constitucional consistente en determinar el alcance y contenido de la autonomía de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales, pues como se lee en el citado comunicado de prensa (...) las CAR no fueron concebidas por el Constituyente propiamente como entidades territoriales, por lo que su autonomía y competencias admite un mayor de definición por parte del legislador (...)

Un efecto inmediato que tiene el pronunciamiento de la Honorable Corte Constitucional recae sobre el Decreto 2220 de 2015 reglamentario del artículo 51 de la Ley 1753 de 2015, que adicionó el Libro 2, Parte 2, Titulo 2, Capitulo 3 del Decreto 1076 de 2015. El mencionado Decreto adiciono una serie de reglas al régimen de licenciamiento ambiental, las cuales tendrán que ser observadas únicamente entratandose de proyectos validados como Proyectos de Interés Nacional y Estratégicos – PINE.

Si bien sobre el Decreto 2220 de 2015 recae la presunción de legalidad y el mismo hace parte del ordenamiento jurídico, no lo es menos, el fundamento jurídico que le dio origen ha sido declarado inexequible con lo cual el mismo no podrá aplicarse en tanto que sobre éste deviene el fenómeno del decaimiento del acto administrativo, con lo cual, las reglas que en materia de licenciamiento adiciono el citado Decreto no podrán aplicarse y en lo sucesivo los Proyectos de Interés Nacional y Estratégicos – PINE habrán de aplicar lo previsto en el Decreto 1076 de 2015 para ejecutar sus proyectos.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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