UK: The Article 50 Process And Planning For The Possible Loss Of Insurance Passporting Rights

Last Updated: 8 July 2016
Article by Stephen Browning

Most Read Contributor in UK, September 2017

Following the UK's decision to leave the EU, we examine some of the many uncertainties around the process by which a member state may leave the EU, and how insurers for whom rights to passport between the UK and other EEA countries are critical or important can make plans to address the considerable risk that upon Brexit (if it actually happens) those rights will be lost.

On 23 June 2016, the UK voted by a narrow margin to leave the European Union. This momentous decision has plunged Britain and Europe into a period of uncertainty that will last for some considerable time while negotiations over the terms of the 'divorce' and the future relationship between the UK and the EU take place.

We examine below some of the many uncertainties around the process by which a member state may leave the EU, and how insurers for whom rights to passport1  between the UK and other EEA countries are critical or important can make plans to address the considerable risk that upon Brexit (if it actually happens) those rights will be lost.

The Article 50 process

As a matter of strict law, the Brexit vote has no legal effect but serves as a mandate for a constitutional decision to be made that the UK should leave the EU. The question posed in the referendum made no reference to the timescale for leaving. For the time being, the UK continues to be an EU member with the full benefits and responsibilities of EU membership (except that it will not be entitled to participate on the EU side of the discussions and decisions about the terms on which it will leave).

Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty contains the procedural requirements for withdrawal of a member state from the EU. Its key provisions relating to the triggering of the process and the timing of withdrawal are:

  1. Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.
  2. A Member State which decides to withdraw shall notify the European Council of its intention. In the light of the guidelines provided by the European Council, the Union shall negotiate and conclude an agreement with that State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the Union...
  3. The Treaties shall cease to apply to the State in question from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after the notification referred to in paragraph 2, unless the European Council, in agreement with the Member State concerned, unanimously decides to extend this period."

In his resignation speech on 24 June, David Cameron said that the new prime minister should decide "when to trigger Article 50 and start the formal and legal process of leaving the EU", effectively suggesting that the start of the formal process for the UK's withdrawal should be deferred for at least the next two or three months.

In the immediate aftermath of the referendum, there were calls from the presidents of the EU Parliament and the European Commission for formal exit talks to start immediately. There was also some discussion in the media about whether the EU could treat as being a notification under Article 50 the discussions touching on the referendum result that have now taken place at the European Council meeting on 28 June (attended by David Cameron). However, it is now clear that the EU accepts that Article 50 will not be triggered until a new leader of the Conservative Party and prime minister has been elected.2    

Once (if) Article 50 is triggered, the UK will automatically leave the EU two years later on a 'non-agreed' basis unless by the end of that period an agreement on the arrangements for the withdrawal "taking account of the framework for [the departing member state's] future relationship with the Union" (Withdrawal Agreement) has been concluded or the other 27 member states have unanimously agreed to an extension.

Any Withdrawal Agreement will be negotiated on the EU side by the European Commission and may only be concluded once approved by the European Parliament (by a simple majority of MEPs) and then either:

  1. by the European Council acting by a qualified majority (being at least 20 of the other 27 member states representing at least 65% of their population); or
  2. by the European Council acting unanimously (followed in due course by ratification by each of the continuing 27 member states), if the terms of the future relationship between the UK and the EU (Future Relationship) are agreed at the same time – which they may not be – and involve (as must be likely) amendments to the EU Treaties and those terms are included in the Withdrawal Agreement.

What might the Future Relationship look like? Boris Johnson (now an inhabitant of the political wilderness) has asserted3  that "there will continue to be free trade, and access to the single market"; "EU citizens living in this country will have their rights fully protected, and the same goes for British citizens living in the EU... British people will still be able to go and work in the EU; to live; to travel; to study; to buy homes and to settle down"; and "the Government will be able to take back democratic control of immigration policy, with a balanced and humane points-based system to suit the needs of business and industry". These comments, in contrast to the polarised nature of many made during the course of the referendum campaign, were clearly designed to steady nerves and provide some reassurance to the many people who voted remain. But with Mr Johnson having now ruled himself out of the race to be the next Conservative leader and prime minister and until negotiations about the Future Relationship are at least reasonably well advanced, we will have little idea whether they will prove to be correct.

There are many other uncertainties:

  • We don't know when (or even if) Article 50 will be triggered.
    Jeremy Hunt, an early possible candidate for the Conservative leadership and prime minister who has now decided to back Theresa May, has suggested that the Government should seek to negotiate a deal with the EU on our future relationship (he suggests a 'Norway plus' deal involving full access to the single market with a sensible compromise on free movement rules) and put that deal to the British people in another referendum or through the Conservative manifesto at a general election, all without first triggering Article 50. And Theresa May, now the favourite in the Conservative leadership race, has said "there should be no decision to invoke article 50 until the British negotiating strategy is agreed and clear, which means article 50 should not be invoked before the end of this year". However:
  • Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, has said that there cannot be any informal negotiations until Article 50 is triggered (interestingly, a paper issued by the European Parliamentary Research Service in February of this year stated that "The timing of this notification is entirely in the hand of the Member State concerned, and informal discussions could take place between it and other Member States and/or EU institutions prior to the notification"); and
  • the EC president, Jean-Claude Juncker, has banned all EU officials from having any talks with the UK until it triggers Article 50.

Also, it is arguable that as a matter of domestic constitutional law, the Government will not be able to trigger Article 50 without first having been authorised to do so by an Act of Parliament. The alternative argument is that the Government may take a decision to trigger Article 50 without authority from Parliament by exercising the royal prerogative (which, among other things, has traditionally been used by the Government to enter into international treaties without Parliamentary involvement). There are deep waters here. Suffice it to say that there is a possibility that:

  • the Government may decide that it cannot trigger Article 50 unless legislation authorising it to do so is first passed by Parliament;
  • Parliament may not be prepared to pass such legislation, either until the nature of the future relationship the UK would have with the EU became at least reasonably clear or at all (bearing in mind that a majority of MPs were in favour of remaining).
  • We don't know whether, once (if) notification under Article 50 is given:
    • it will be possible for a Withdrawal Agreement to be concluded within the two year 'automatic exit' period; or
    • an extension to the 'automatic exit' period will be forthcoming if a Withdrawal Agreement is not concluded within two years, since the agreement of every one of the 27 other member states to such an extension would be required; or
    • the notification could be withdrawn – in practice the answer is probably "yes" if all the other members states were to agree but that otherwise the position would be unclear (since Article 50 itself is silent on the point) and would need to be decided by the European Court of Justice. 
  • And – very importantly – we don't know at this point whether the terms of the Future Relationship will be agreed at the same time as Britain leaves, or even whether the EU will be willing to start to negotiate on the Future Relationship until after Brexit occurs. The EU's Trade Commissioner, Cecilia Malmstrom, has said it won't, and the Heads of State or Government of the other 27 member states have said that any agreement about the Future Relationship "will be concluded with the UK as a third country" (notably however, this is not the same as saying that negotiations cannot begin until the UK is a third country).

Planning for the possible loss of insurance passporting rights

Unless the Future Relationship involves membership of EFTA and the EEA (or arrangements to similar effect), rights for insurers to passport between the UK and other EEA countries will be lost when (if) Brexit occurs.
If that happens:

  • UK-based insurers with branches in EEA countries (and no EEA-based insurer elsewhere within their group) who want to be able to continue to write the business they currently conduct through their EEA branches will need to have either:
    • obtained local authorisations for the branches; or
    • established (or acquired) a subsidiary in the EEA (with its own regulatory capital) in order to write EEA business on a passporting basis
      Alternatively, it may be more capital-efficient for such insurers to undertake a restructuring under which the UK operation would be a branch of a new (or acquired) EEA company.
  • EEA-based insurers with branches in the UK (and no UK-based insurer elsewhere within their group) who want to continue to write the business currently conducted through their UK branches will need to have either:
    • obtained UK authorisation for those UK branches; or
    • established (or acquired) a UK subsidiary (again, with its own regulatory capital); and
  • UK-based insurers (with no EEA-based insurer elsewhere within their group) who currently write risks situated in EEA countries from the UK on a cross-border services basis and who want to continue to write such risks will in many cases need to have established locally-authorised branches or subsidiaries (or a subsidiary incorporated and authorised in another EEA country which could write risks throughout the EEA on a passporting basis) in order to do so. Again, it may be more capital-efficient for a restructuring to be undertaken under which the UK operation would be a branch of a new (or acquired) EEA company.

A further likely consequence of a Brexit that did not involve the continuation of passporting rights for the UK would be the loss of automatic mutual recognition (as between the UK and the EEA) of insurance business transfers sanctioned by UK or EEA courts or regulators, potentially making the process of reorganising books of insurance business located in insurance companies and their branches in the UK and the EEA considerably more complex (through a need for multiple applications to courts or regulators) or perhaps, in some cases, impossible.

It is also possible that following Brexit, the pan-EU cross border merger rules that enable mergers between public and private companies with limited liability in different EU member states will cease to apply as between the UK and the continuing EU.
In view of the uncertainty that will exist for some time about the nature of the UK's future relationship with the EU and the timeframes that can be involved in obtaining additional authorisations or executing reorganisations by means of insurance business transfers or cross-border mergers, it may be prudent for insurers for whom the ability to transact pan-European business is critical or important to take decisions in the relatively near future about strategic options for their post-Brexit structure on the assumption that the passporting regime will not continue once the UK leaves the EU.


1  i.e. the rights under the European insurance single market system by which a firm authorised in one EEA 'home' state may carry on business in any other EEA 'host' state on the basis of its home state authorisation, either through a branch in the host state or on a cross-border services basis 

2 In remarks following the 28 June European Council meeting, the President, Donald Tusk, said "Respecting the will of the British people, we all recognized that a process of orderly exit was in everyone's, and especially, in the UK's interest. Prime Minister Cameron undertook that the decision to trigger Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union be taken by the new leadership in Britain. Our discussions were calm and measured. Leaders understand that some time is now needed to allow the dust to settle in the UK. But they also expect the intentions of the UK government to be specified as soon as possible."

3 In an article in The Daily Telegraph on Monday 27 June

The Article 50 Process And Planning For The Possible Loss Of Insurance Passporting Rights

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.