Alec Emmerson, Consultant at Clyde & Co in Dubai, has a look
at the arbitration developments in the UAE so far in 2016.
What has been the most significant arbitration case law
development in the UAE the first half of 2016?
The most significant story in arbitration related case law in
the UAE remains the development of the DIFC Courts'
("DIFCC") "conduit" jurisdiction. As previously
reported several judgments of the DIFCC over the last two years led
the way in the development of those courts as a conduit both for
the enforcement of foreign awards where the award debtor had no
connection with DIFC and also for the enforcement of domestic
DIFCC held that there was no basis for asserted constitutional
conflict of legislation which would prevent recognition and
enforcement of awards in the DIFC where the Defendant is domiciled
in Dubai. In December 2015 in an as yet unreported judgment of the
Union Supreme Court (to which one of the parties in an earlier case
had referred the constitutionality issue), it was held that
DIFCC's view of the matter was correct.
Although the award debtor then sought a review by the USC of its
December decision, no judgment on that review has been issued and,
in the view of the writer at least, the USC has no power to review
its own decisions.
In a further development, the award debtor in the same case had
sought annulment of the arbitration award in the Dubai Courts but
both at First Instance and in the Court of Appeal the applications
to annul were unsuccessful. The matter is currently with the Dubai
The development of the conduit jurisdiction in various judgments
of the DIFCC has also resulted in a change in procedure. In the
early cases the Court was not prepared to make orders for
enforcement on an ex parte basis. Now it appears to be the practice
for such orders for recognition and enforcement to be made ex parte
(as permitted by the DIFCC Rules), putting the onus on the award
debtor to seek to set aside the recognition and enforcement order.
This has speeded up the process considerably and has resulted in
What have been the most significant developments in arbitral
institutions in the UAE in the same period?
Following statutory amendments in 2014 to Law No. 9 of 2004
"Concerning the Dubai International Financial Centre",
the DIFC Courts which was one of the three bodies of DIFC, became a
constituent part of the new Dispute Resolution Authority. There was
also created, as an independent body under the DRA umbrella, the
DIFC Arbitration Institute ("DAI"). In November 2015 DAI
relaunched the DIFC-LCIA Arbitration Centre in what is essentially
a joint venture with LCIA. This was followed by the appointment of
Mohamed ElGhatit as the new Director & Registrar of DIFC-LCIA
and the appointment of other support staff which will result in
most of the case management and development of the Centre going
forward with a unique blend of the LCIA's renowned reputation
combined with "on the ground" management in the DIFC,
supervised by an international board of five trustees who are well
known in international arbitration. New Rules to reflect LCIA's
updates of 2014 (including online filing, the ability to appoint an
emergency arbitrator and the party conduct provisions) are looked
forward to eagerly later this year, along with the establishment of
a DIFC-LCIA Users' Council.
Emirates Maritime Arbitration Centre was also established by
decree in the first half of this year and will be fully up and
running later in the year.
Finally, ADGM issued its arbitration regulations. Whilst this is
not an arbitral institution, the regulations set out the
"law" for the conduct of arbitrations in ADGM. The UAE
therefore now has a diversity of arbitration offerings of which the
above three have up to date arbitration laws their seat (DIFC and
ADGM) and are expected to assist Dubai and the UAE in their aim to
become world class arbitration centres.
What have been the most notable features of your practice so
far this year?
For Clyde & Co, there has been a continued growth of
instructions in commercial and construction arbitrations along with
enforcements through the DIFC Courts and execution against assets
What development internationally has caught your eye and
The lifting of sanctions on Iran should result in a dramatic
increase of international trade and investment involving Iran. This
in turn will mean that there are more disputes involving Iranian
parties which the UAE's arbitration (and mediation) centres are
uniquely placed to handle. This is a message that needs to be
delivered to both international and Iranian parties with particular
emphasis on DIFC as the seat preferred for such arbitration.
Last year we reported that the DIFC had successfully established itself as a so called ‘conduit' jurisdiction for the enforcement of foreign and domestic arbitral awards as well as foreign money judgements.
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