Nigeria: Legal Framework Of The Nigerian Petroleum Industry

Last Updated: 3 April 2001
Article by Olajumoke Akinjide-Balogun

Introduction

Oil was first discovered in commercial quantities in Nigeria in 1956 near Oloibiri Village in Rivers State. The discovery was made by Shell D’Arcy, a company of Anglo/Dutch origins. The company began production in 1958 with an average production of 6000 barrels of oil per day (bopd). Nigeria currently produces about 2 million bopd.

Nigerian oil is light and low in sulphur and consequently commands premium prices. Nigeria is the 9th largest world oil producer and the 5th largest OPEC producer. Nigeria also has huge natural gas reserves.

New deep water activity has yielded major discoveries such as

  • Bonga (operated by Shell)
  • Erha (operated by ExxonMobil)
  • Agbami (operated by Texaco)

National aspirations include

  1. the increase of reserves from the current level of 25 million barrels to 30 million barrels and increase in productivity from 2.2 million bopd to 3 million bopd in year 2003;
  2. further increase in reserves and productivity to 40 billion barrels and 4 million bopd respectively by year 2010; and
  3. attaining zero flaring associated gas through gainful gas utilization projects by year 2008

Government Participation

In the 1960s, government interest in the oil industry was limited to the collection of taxes, royalties and lease rentals. Many developing countries had begun to agitate for greater control over their natural resources in reaction to the continued control of their economies by the old colonial masters. In 1962 the Resolution on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources was adopted by a majority of the General Assembly of the United Nations. The Resolution asserted that the right of people to freely use and exploit their natural wealth and resources is inherent in their sovereignty. In this spirit, in 1969 the Petroleum Act was enacted which vested the entire ownership and control of all petroleum in, under or upon all land or Nigerian territorial waters in the Nigerian government.

In 1971 Nigeria joined the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). OPEC was formed to improve the lot of oil producing countries by adopting a "group" stance (all resolutions adopted are binding on every member).

In accordance with OPEC’s 1968 and 1971 Resolutions urging member countries to participate in oil operations by acquiring ownership in the concessions held by foreign companies, Nigeria’s military government in 1971 established the Nigerian National Oil Corporation (NNOC) by Decree. The NNOC was empowered to acquire any asset and liability in existing oil companies on behalf of the Nigerian government, and to participate in all phases of the petroleum industry. In that same year, the government acquired 33% and 35% of the operating interests of Agip and Elf respectively. Further acquisitions occurred in 1973 and 1974 in the operations of all the other foreign oil companies. Government participation in the commercial oil sector continues to this day through the NNPC and government’s participatory interest is 60% in all the JVs except the Shell operated JV where it is 55%.

The Stakeholders

Federal Government/NNPC

The Federal Government participates in the oil industry through the NNPC. The NNPC was formed in 1977. It inherited the commercial activities of the NNOC and the supervisory/regulatory role of the Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources. However a de-merger took place in 1984 and presently, the NNPC undertakes commercial activities, whilst the Federal Ministry of Petroleum Resources acting through the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) is the regulatory authority.

NNPC is the group holding company headed by a Group Managing Director/Chief Executive. There are six divisions of NNPC, headed by Group Executive Directors i.e.

  1. Engineering and Technical
  2. Corporate Services
  3. Finance and Accounts
  4. Refining and Petro-Chemicals
  5. Exploration and Production
  6. Commercial and Investments.

NNPC’s subsidiaries are:

  1. PH Refineries I and II
  2. Kaduna Refinery and Petro-Chemicals
  3. Warri Refinery and Petro-Chemicals
  4. Pipelines, Products and Marketing Co Ltd.
  5. Nigerian Petroleum Development Co Ltd.
  6. Nigerian Gas Company Ltd.
  7. Integrated Data Services Ltd. [IDSL]
  8. National Engineering and Technical Co Ltd. [NETCO].

NNPC also holds shareholding interests in Nigeria LNG Limited and many oil service companies,

National Petroleum Investment Management Service, NAPIMS, a Business unit of the NNPC is responsible for the management of government investments in the petroleum sector. It is headed by a Group General Manager.

Currently NAPIMS, working directly under the E & P Directorate of NNPC, manages -

  1. The seven (7) NNPC/Multinational Oil Co Joint Ventures;
  2. Nine (9) Production Sharing Contracts and one (1) Service Contract (Agip Energy); and
  3. The Frontier Exploration in the Chad Basin.

The Multinationals

The major players in the Nigerian upstream are Shell, ExxonMobil, Chevron/Texaco, TotalElfFina Elf and Agip. These multinationals account for about 97% of Nigeria’s oil reserves and production. They participate in the petroleum industry in Joint Ventures with NNPC, as operators/contractors in the Nigerian deep water under production sharing contracts with NNPC; and in one instance under a service contract with NNPC.

In addition, some multinational companies have farmed into indigenous oil company concessions where they provide the technical expertise and funding required for E & P operations.

Indigenous Oil Companies

The Indigenous Concession Programme’s aim was to retain ownership and control of indigenous concessions in Nigerian hands and thereby encourage the growth of local expertise production in exploration, development and operations.

The first set of indigenous grants was in the 1970s/1980s to Henry Stevens Company, Nigus Petroleum and Niger Delta Oil Co.

Later, Dubri Oil acquired a concession by assignment from Philips Oil Company Ltd. in 1987. However, it was not until 1991 that Professor Jubril Aminu, the Minister of Petroleum at the time, awarded eleven (11) concession blocks to Nigeria entrepreneurs on a discretionary basis.

This was followed by another round of allocations in 1993, and eventually resulted in more than 40 Indigenous E & P companies holding OPLs under the programme. In 1999, OPLs for nine (9) blocks were awarded and subsequently cancelled. Finally, during the current Year 2000 Licensing Round 22 blocks were offered to the entire industry, both onshore and offshore, through a process of competitive bidding.

Host Communities

Though not direct stakeholders, host communities are nevertheless one of the most important stakeholders in the petroleum industry. The critical role and interests of the host communities, long neglected, is finally being recognised and addressed by the Federal Government , inter alia, by the passing of the Niger Delta Development Commission Act.

Law & Policy Makers And Regulators

The President is currently the de facto Petroleum Minister, acting under advice from the Presidential Adviser on Petroleum and Energy.

The National Assembly as the Legislative arm of government is empowered to pass legislation on Petroleum matters – which is on the Exclusive Legislative List.

Federal Ministry of Petroleum - is responsible for formulating and implementing Government policy.

Department of Petroleum Resources is the Regulatory arm of the oil and gas industry.

DPR’s Mission Statement is -

"To serve as the watchdog over the development of our nation’s oil and gas resources, by employing modern tools and techniques to direct, influence and achieve the optimum exploitation, conversion and utilisation of petroleum and its derivatives for the maximum benefit of Nigerians while ensuring minimal damage to the environment."

Ministry of Environment/FEPA - The Federal Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1988 (Decree no 50) to protect, restore and preserve the ecosystem of the Nigerian environment.

There is an overlap of jurisdiction between Ministry of Environment and DPR in the area of environmental protection matters as it pertains to the petroleum industry. It is important that there is only one lead agency dealing with industry operators and a memorandum of understanding between the various regulatory agencies on inter-agency co-operation.

The Federation Inland Revenue Board is responsible for collection of Royalties and PPT on behalf of Government.

Interests & Rights

The most important petroleum legislation in Nigeria is the Petroleum Act, 1969, Section 1 of which provides that -

  1. The entire ownership and control of all petroleum in, under or upon any lands to which this section applies shall be vested in the State.
  2. This section applies to all land (including land covered by water) which -
    1. is in Nigeria ; or
    2. is under the territorial waters of Nigeria; or
    3. forms part of the continental shelf; or
    4. forms part of the Exclusive Economic Zone of Nigeria."

The Petroleum Act 1969 provides for the grant by the Minister of Petroleum Resources of three types of interests – exploration, prospecting and production rights.

Exploration

An Oil Exploration Licence (OEL) is necessary to conduct preliminary exploration surveys. The licence is non-exclusive and is granted for a period of one year. It is renewable annually.

Prospecting

An Oil Prospecting Licence (OPL) allows for more extensive exploration surveys. It is an exclusive licence given for a period not exceeding 5 years. It includes the right to take away and dispose of oil discovered while prospecting. An OPL granted to a foreign company is now issued with a covenant by the foreign company to assign the OPL to the NNPC upon making a commercial discovery. The foreign company will then enter into a PSC or a Risk Service Contract with the NNPC.

Production

The grant of an Oil Mining Lease (OML) allows for full scale commercial production once oil is discovered in commercial quantities (currently defined as a flow rate of 10,000bpd). The Lease confers the exclusive right to carry out prospecting, exploration, production and marketing activities in and under the specified acreage for a period of 20 years.

The Minister exercises general supervision over all operations carried on under licences and leases (Section 8) and may make regulations prescribing anything required to be done under the Act (Section 9).

Operating Contracts

Participatory Joint Ventures/JOA/MOU

The seven (7) Joint Ventures operated by foreign oil companies in partnership with the Federal Government are –

 

 

Joint Ventures

% of Partner's Participation

 

 

Govt. (NNPC)

Oil Company

 

 

 

 

Shell

Elf

Agip

NNPC/ Shell/ Elf/ Agip

55

30

10

5

NNPC/ Texaco/ Chevron

60

Texaco

20

Chevron

20

 

NNPC/ Agip/ Philips

60

Agip

20

Philips

20

 

NNPC/ Mobil

60

40

 

 

NNPC/ Chevron

60

40

 

 

NNPC/ Elf

60

40

 

 

NNPC/ Pan Ocean

60

40

 

 

The JV is an unincorporated vehicle. Each JV partner shares the exploration and financial risks. Each JV participant contributes to the payment of all costs when called upon ("Cash Calls") in the proportion of its participating interest.

Ownership, funding and production sharing are all based on each partner’s equity share.

A Joint Operating Agreement (JOA) governs the parties’ administrative and operational relations.

The commercial terms of the JV’s are governed by a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) which modifies the fiscal regime by providing fiscal incentives to ensure that the oil company realises a minimum profit margin and a bonus for additions to oil reserves.

The first MOU signed in 1986 was revised in 1991 and the current one is the MOU, 2000.

Production Sharing Contracts (PSC)

The first Nigerian PSC was the Ashland Oil PSC signed in 1973. Since then, due to Nigeria’s inability to adequately meet its cash call obligations to fund JV operations, all new government contracts with oil companies are PSCs.

Elements common to PSCs are –

  1. The contract is entered into between the NNPC and the E & P company ("the contractor").
  2. The NNPC is the holder of the OPL and OML which constitute the contract area.
  3. The contractor is appointed and given exclusive rights to carry out the exploration and production operations in the contract area for a period of 30 years.
  4. The contractor is exclusively responsible for financing all petroleum operations.
  5. Only in the event of successful development of discoveries will the oil company recover exploration and development costs. Hence all exploration and development risks are taken by the oil company.
  6. Production is divided into "Royalty Oil", "Cost Oil", "Tax Oil" and "Profit Oil" in that order of priority.
  7. "Royalty Oil" is the quantity of available oil allocated to pay the sum of Royalties payable during a month of production and the amount of concession rentals payable for that period.
  8. "Cost Oil" is sold to provide revenues for the recovery of qualifying pre-production costs and operating costs.

    "Tax Oil" is the oil allocated to cover the Petroleum Profit Tax payable. Companies Income Tax is not applied to petroleum operations.

    "Profit Oil" is the oil remaining after all the above have been allocated. The profit oil is allocated to each party in pre-agreed percentages.

  9. A Joint Management Committee is responsible for overseeing petroleum operations and the agreed work programme.

The Deep Offshore and Inland Basin Production Sharing Contracts Act, 1999, provides legislative backing for the contract terms and fiscal regime governing PSCs.

Risk Service Contracts

The OPL is held by NNPC while the service company funds petroleum operations. Each service contract relates to a single concession. The primary term is for a period of 2 or 3 years renewable at NNPC’s option for a further 2 years. As the contractor only gets reimbursed from funds derived from the sale of the concession’s available oil, if oil is not discovered in commercial quantities, the contractor does not recover its cost.

Where oil is found, the contractor is paid its cost back in installments, in cash or crude allocation. The contractor is remunerated by payment of a fixed amount. It does not have a participation share and does not acquire title to any crude produced. As such the contractor is liable to pay Companies Income Tax and not Petroleum Profit Tax.

Indigenous Operations – Sole Risk Contracts

The operating company holds the OPL or OML. There is no government participatory interest (although government reserves the right to exercise an option to participate at any time). Government interest is limited to collection of Royalty and Petroleum Profit Tax. All concessions under the Indigenous Concession Programme are granted on a sole risk basis.

Marginal Fields

The long awaited legislation on marginal fields was promulgated in August 1996, as the Petroleum (Amendment) Decree 1996.

The law provides that the holder of an OML may, of its own accord, farm out any marginal field within the leased area with the consent of the Head of State.

The Head of State may compulsorily farm-out a marginal field where it has been left unattended for 10 years or more from the date of first discovery of the marginal field. The pre-conditions for a compulsory farm out are:

  • public interest, and
  • acceptability of the partners to the government.

Draft "Guidelines for Farm-out and Operations of Marginal Fields" prepared by the DPR in September, 1996 provide, inter alia, that:

  1. Current holders of OPL/OML, except indigenous oil companies, are excluded from farming into marginal fields. Indigenous companies must relinquish existing OPL/OML to be eligible.
  2. Only technically qualified Nigerian citizens who own locally incorporated companies may apply.

The draft guidelines are yet to be approved.

Marginal fields may only be operated on a "Sole Risk" basis. The agreement shall be for an initial period of 5 years, renewable thereafter every 5 years until the expiry of the lease.

A farmee may have a foreign technical partner with not more than 40% interest in the marginal field.

Various fees, Premium, Rents and Royalties are prescribed, while Petroleum Profit Tax is charged at the rate of 65.75%.

The oil majors view any compulsory acquisition of portions of their OMLs as an act of expropriation and in breach of the terms under which the Leases were granted.

Gas

Nigeria has been described as a gas province with a little bit of oil! This is testimony to our huge gas reserves which is estimated at 120 trillion cubic feet. Our position as the world leader in gas flaring is well known.

The good news is that the Nigerian Government is committed to a "flares out" date of 2008.

The current gas legislation is the Associated Gas Re-injection Act, 1979. In pursuance of government policy, generous fiscal incentives for gas utilization have been granted. Gas incentives include royalties at zero per cent, gas development under the Companies Income Tax Act and duty/VAT exemptions for gas developments.

Gas utilization opportunities include

  • Independent Power Projects (IPPs)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
  • Natural Gas Liquids (NGL)
  • Gas – to- Liquids (GTL)
  • West African Gas Pipeline
  • Domestic gas utilization.

There is a need for the publication of the long awaited National Gas policy.

The Environment

Public awareness and concern over the degradation of our natural environment is growing. Both Government and the public are now fully sensitised to the issues of environmental management and protection. Clear evidence of this is the formation of the new Ministry for Environment.

The sources of environment law are myriad and include –

  1. International law – Treaties, customary international law.
  2. Statutes –e.g. FEPA Act, Environmental Impact Assessment Act, 1992, Oil in Navigable Water Act [Cap 337] LFN 1990.
  3. Subsidiary Legislation –Mineral Oils (Safety) Regs 1995, Petroleum (Drilling and Production) Regulations [Cap 350] LFN 1990
  4. Environmental Standards and Guidelines for the Petroleum Industry in Nigeria, 1991

The National Oil Spill Contingency Plan deserved a mention. The plan which was prepared to establish a national system for responding promptly and efficiently to oil pollution incidents was drafted in compliance with Nigeria’s international obligations as a signatory to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation, 1990.

Downstream

The supply sub-sector of the Downstream sector is completely and exclusively dominated by NNPC through ownership of all the existing refineries and government regulation of pricing.

The distribution sub-sector is also entirely controlled by NNPC through ownership of the distribution pipelines, depots and oil import jetties.

Only in the marketing sub-sector do we see control shared by the eight major marketers (40% of the fuels retail market) and the Independent Marketers (60% of the fuels retail market).

It has already been noted that the supply and distribution assets of NNPC are slated for partial privatisation. Further, government’s 40% interests in the marketing sub-sector – Unipetrol Plc, National Oil and Chemical Co Ltd and African Petroleum Plc – have recently been fully privatised through sale to core investors.

The Downstream sector is governed by the Petroleum Act, 1969 and Regulations made under it.

Privatisation

The Privatisation policy of the Federal Government is premised on the need to manage public funds efficiently, attract foreign capital and new technology and raise funds for Government to be used for infrastructure and social development.

The enabling legislation is the Public Enterprises (Privatisation and Commercialisation) Act, 1999, which establishes the National Council on Privatisation as the governing body, and the Bureau of Public Enterprises as the implementation organ.

Under the Privatisation Act, NNPC is slated for full commercialisaion and the following NNPC subsidiaries are to be partially privatised, i.e. Government retains 40% equity stake :

  1. PH Refinery I and II
  2. Kaduna Refinery and Petro-Chemicals
  3. Warri Refinery and Petro-Chemicals
  4. Pipelines, Products and Marketing Co Ltd.
  5. Nigerian Petroleum Development Co Ltd.
  6. Nigerian Gas Company Ltd.

An Ideal Legal Framework

In order to attract investment to the petroleum sector, laws, regulations and policy governing the industry should be -

  • Clear,
  • Complete,
  • Transparent,
  • Accessible,
  • Flexible, and
  • Practical.

A consultative process should be institutionalised to ensure periodic dialogue with operators to ensure that regulations are technically feasible and cost effective.

Legal processes must be quick and remedies efficient and effective.

Stability of fiscal contract terms is essential.

Finally, the law should further the national energy policy objectives of the Federal Government.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Olajumoke Akinjide-Balogun
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
Accounting and Audit
Anti-trust/Competition Law
Consumer Protection
Corporate/Commercial Law
Criminal Law
Employment and HR
Energy and Natural Resources
Environment
Family and Matrimonial
Finance and Banking
Food, Drugs, Healthcare, Life Sciences
Government, Public Sector
Immigration
Insolvency/Bankruptcy, Re-structuring
Insurance
Intellectual Property
International Law
Litigation, Mediation & Arbitration
Media, Telecoms, IT, Entertainment
Privacy
Real Estate and Construction
Strategy
Tax
Transport
Wealth Management
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.