United States: Infrastructure Risks And Opportunities

This is the third issue of WilmerHale's 10-in-10 Hot Topics in Energy Series. Over the next 10 weeks, our attorneys will share insights on current and emerging issues affecting the US energy sector. Attorneys from across various practice groups at the firm will offer their take on issues ranging from congressional investigations, to the impact of key regulatory reforms, to emerging trends in domestic litigation and international arbitration. Read our other recent publications.

In Brief

Early signs point to a renewed focus on infrastructure in 2019, including President Trump's appeal to both parties in last week's State of the Union, "to unite for a great rebuilding of America's crumbling infrastructure."

In the third issue of WilmerHale's 10-in-10 Hot Topics in Energy Series, we look at two critical legal issues for energy and utility companies raised by infrastructure-based risks, including:

  • the unique risks to the natural gas industry posed by aging infrastructure;
  • and the increasing risks faced by energy companies from wildfires caused by transmission lines or other infrastructure.

Early signs point to a renewed focus on infrastructure in 2019. In last week's State of the Union, President Trump appealed to both parties "to unite for a great rebuilding of America's crumbling infrastructure." Both Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell have identified infrastructure as one of the few potential areas of bipartisan compromise in the 116th Congress. However, this is not the first time President Trump has called for infrastructure investment, and details of any legislation are yet to be seen.

Whether or not Congress passes a major infrastructure bill, it is clear that infrastructure-based risks raise critical legal issues for energy and utility companies. In this week's alert, we look at two of those issues: the unique risks to the natural gas industry posed by aging infrastructure, and the increasing risks faced by energy companies from wildfires caused by transmission lines or other infrastructure.

Regulatory/Legislative Updates

Infrastructure has long been a policy priority for President Trump. As a candidate, he proposed $1.5 trillion in infrastructure spending over 10 years. In his first two years in office, he has taken executive actions to promote major infrastructure projects through streamlined permitting and reductions in other regulatory requirements, including expedited environmental review and approval. See Executive Order 13766 (Jan. 24, 2017); Executive Order 13807 (Aug. 25, 2017). In 2018, he proposed $200 billion in federal funding designed to stimulate an additional $1.3 trillion in infrastructure spending from states, local governments and the private sector. That proposal failed to gain traction, and the tangible effects of the Trump Administration's efforts so far have been limited.

With evidence of a renewed focus coming from President Trump and leaders in both parties, 2019 could be the year an infrastructure bill passes. That said, the contours of any such legislation are unclear, and a workable compromise is far from certain. One sticking point will be the source and amount of federal funding for any infrastructure package. Options include increasing the federal gas tax for the first time in 25 years and implementing a "vehicle-miles-traveled" fee (to account for the increase in electric vehicles). We can expect that any bill will include incentives for public-private partnerships, and investments at the state and local levels.

Because infrastructure is a broad term, another hurdle will be agreeing on the types of projects that should be included and prioritized. For President Trump and many Republicans in Congress, the focus is largely on expediting the development of pipelines and other infrastructure to promote transmission and export of oil and natural gas as part of America's "energy dominance" agenda. To gain majority support in the Democratic-controlled House, by contrast, any bill would likely need to include measures addressing climate change, including by supporting infrastructure necessary to facilitate a transition to clean and renewable energy sources. Indeed, the recently proposed "Green New Deal"—which has already garnered widespread support among Democratic presidential candidates—expressly requires that "any infrastructure bill considered by Congress addresses climate change." Such provisions, of course, are unlikely to find broad support among Senate Republicans.

Even if bipartisan legislation stalls, there are a number of unilateral actions available to President Trump. Prior to the partial government shutdown earlier this year, there were reports that the President was considering executive actions to facilitate pipeline development, boost liquefied natural gas exports and limit states' ability to block permits using Section 401 of the Clean Water Act—which requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit certify that its operations will meet state water quality standards.

As with many of the President's other executive actions, these would likely trigger immediate legal challenges. States, environmental groups, Native American tribes and other stakeholders are already actively challenging a number of high-profile pipelines and transmission projects. And, as discussed in a prior alert in this series, House Democrats are planning to use their oversight authority to investigate the Trump Administration's actions in this space, including its promotion of oil and gas drilling on public lands, attempts to streamline permitting, and perceived watering down of environmental reviews.

Aging Pipeline Infrastructure

Regardless of whether Congress passes infrastructure legislation, risks associated with existing infrastructure will continue to make headlines. Natural gas infrastructure in the United States includes more than 2.5 million miles of transmission, distribution and service pipelines. For much of the 20th century, cast iron was a popular material for natural gas pipelines. Now more than 60 years old in many places, cast-iron pipes pose safety and emissions risks due to corrosion and leakage. The risk of aging cast-iron pipes is well documented: although only 2% of all distribution mains are cast iron, between 2005 and 2017, such mains accounted for 10.6% of reportable "incidents"—i.e., leaks causing an injury or fatality, property damage in excess of $50,000, or the unintentional release of a certain amount of gas.1

The natural gas industry and regulators have long recognized these risks and have made strides in recent years to modernize the system. From 2005 to 2017, the mileage of cast-iron distribution mains and service lines decreased by nearly 38% and 77%, respectively.2 According to the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), by the end of 2017 approximately 97% of natural gas distribution pipelines in the United States were made of plastic or steel.3

Despite modernization efforts, thousands of miles of old pipe remain in the system. Several recent events have highlighted the risks associated both with aging natural gas infrastructure itself and with efforts to upgrade it. Gas companies and utilities have faced high-profile legal challenges resulting from these incidents.

As gas companies and utilities operate, maintain and modernize their pipeline infrastructure, they must navigate a complex overlay of federal and state requirements. Pursuant to the National Gas Pipeline Safety Act (NGPSA), 49 U.S.C. § 60101 et seq., every state other than Alaska and Hawaii has assumed safety authority over intrastate gas pipelines through a certification process with PHMSA. State requirements may—and often do—exceed the federal minimums.

According to one industry survey, more than 1,300 safety requirements imposed by states exceed federal standards, and state utility commissions most often govern the day-to-day operations and maintenance of pipelines.4 Moreover, penalty provisions may differ significantly by jurisdiction. Some states have adopted the NGPSA's $2 million cap on civil penalties for a related series of violations, while other states have not. For example, because California state law imposes penalties far greater than the NGPSA cap, the California PUC was able to impose $1.6 billion in penalties on Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) in connection with the pipeline incident in San Bruno, California. Gas companies and utilities must therefore be aware not only of federal requirements, but also of the varying requirements of the states in which they operate.

Wildfire Liability

Wildfires pose an increasing risk to energy companies and utilities across the country. One such risk is suits by private parties and state and federal agencies for damages caused by wildfires. For fires in which utility equipment was involved, utilities may be required to pay for the damage caused by the fire. In California, which has the most stringent liability regime for wildfires, property owners can seek compensation for property damage through inverse condemnation when it is determined that the utility's equipment was the cause of ignition, regardless of whether the utility was negligent or at fault. This strict liability regime has been the main factor in PG&E's recent bankruptcy filing, as the company faces billions of dollars in damages resulting from the 2017 and 2018 California wildfires.

Moreover, if a fire burns national forest land, the federal government can bring common-law claims for negligence and trespass and, in some states, for fire-suppression costs under provisions of state law. For example, the United States has invoked a California statute that provides that any person who negligently or illegally starts a fire is liable for suppression costs, and permits emergency or rescue services to recover fire-related costs. See Cal. Health & Safety Code § 13009; see, e.g., United States v. Al-Shawaf, 2018 WL 4501108 (C.D. Cal. Sept. 19, 2018). In addition to recovery of suppression costs, the United States has successfully recovered the market value of lost timber and restoration costs, including compensation for the diminution in value of federal lands due to scenic, recreational and wildlife impacts. See, e.g., United States v. Union Pac. R.R. Co., 565 F. Supp. 2d 1136 (E.D. Cal. 2008).

In response, energy companies and utilities are implementing best management practices and other tools to prevent such fires, including:

  • Modernizing vegetation and forest management practices for fire prevention, including an increased focus on removing vegetation near power lines;
  • Ensuring utility and public infrastructure is designed, constructed and operated to maximize resiliency, including installing of more fireproof equipment;
  • Increasing weather and fire monitoring activities by installing weather stations to monitor wind and humidity and by mounting cameras to watch for flames;
  • Responding to wind and weather events through de-energizing power lines;
  • Using specialized insurance products in high wildfire areas to mitigate risks;
  • Working with state legislatures to limit liability for utility companies in light of increased climate-related risks.

At the federal level, Congress has reduced procedural requirements for agency approval of certain wildfire-prevention efforts on federal lands, including some hazardous-fuel reduction and vegetation-restoration projects. Under the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA), 16 U.S.C. § 6501 et seq., wildfire-prevention projects on federal lands that meet certain criteria are eligible for streamlined environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and expedited review of NEPA documents and proposed projects within the approving agency. In practice, this allows utilities and energy companies to more quickly receive approvals from federal agencies to conduct critical wildfire-prevention projects.

Even with support voiced by both parties, it remains to be seen whether Congress and the White House can pass infrastructure legislation in 2019. Many obstacles must be overcome before such legislation becomes reality. With or without congressional action, though, energy companies and utilities will continue to face the risks—including legal challenges, financial impacts and reputational damage—associated with aging infrastructure and the increasing threat of infrastructure-caused wildfires.


  1. "Cast and Wrought Iron Inventory," PHMSA Pipeline Replacement Updates.
  2. Id.
  3. "Background," PHMSA Pipeline Replacement Updates.
  4. Providing Increased Public Safety Levels—Executive Summary, National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Sign Up
Gain free access to lawyers expertise from more than 250 countries.
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Newsalert
Select Topics
Select Regions
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions