United States: Vietnam – Infrastructure Development – Outlook On The European Union Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (Evfta)

The Government has enacted several laws in order to promote infrastructure development especially through private investment. The latest one, Decree 15/2015/ND-CP on public-private partnership investment (the PPP Decree), was very promising regarding the forms of contract concerned, the various sectors targeted, the State support or participation and tender requirements. As a matter of fact, its enforcement revealed that more efforts were needed to achieve a successful PPP program.

To implement the PPP Decree, many documents were adopted in various sectors: project development procedures with Circular 02/2016/TT-BKHDT and Decision No. 06/2016/TT-BKHDT issued by the Ministry of Planning and Investment; financial management of PPP projects with Circular 55/2016/TT-BTC issued by the Ministry of Finance; power and energy tackled by the Ministry of Industry and Trade in Circular 23/2015/TT-BCT and Circular 38/2015/TT-BCT and finally transport sector with Circular 86/2015/TT-BGTVT issued by the Ministry of Transport.

Transparency and clearance of the PPP program

The issues remaining after the PPP Decree implementation concern the viability gap funding (VGF) and the project development fund (PDF) which differentiate PPP projects from Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) ones. Indeed, through availability payments incurred for PPP project, private operators are guaranteed with a profitable VGF regardless of the users' fees and of the time before being profitable. Regulations on VGF and PDF should be established in order to fully control the PPP scheme.

Furthermore, infrastructure projects do not necessarily have to comply with PPP requirements since other contracts may be less demanding in terms of obligations and using incentives stated in the Investment Law of 2015. The idea, within the PPP program, is to attract private investors such as banks or credit institutions into financing highly-efficient projects and therefore relieving the State from the projects' funding. This implies granting of more incentives to motivate foreign and local non-state banks.

Under the former regime concerning BOT contracts, a double licensing system was necessary for investors to qualify at selection stage and then for approval of the project and their own capacity.  The new PPP Decree does not clarify the process therefore a simplified procedure should be adopted.

Some difficulties, stated during the development of the drafts of the PPP Decree, are restraining project lenders. The first one concerns the impossibility of a mortgage on land use right for foreign contractors in BOT contracts and the issue regarding the interpretation of the land law. A provision of this law stipulates that a mortgage of land use rights is only possible if all land rents have been paid, whereas in BOT contracts land is granted for free. The Government decided then that a mortgage under this circumstance was impossible as no rent has been paid. The PPP Decree seems to allow payment of a nominal rent but this does not solve the mortgage problem for BOT foreign contractors. A practical provision should allow a certain land security for private investors.

Uncertainty regarding Government's guarantees

Another concern tackles the guarantee on convertibility and remittability of VND income. Without such a guarantee, some BOT projects would not be bankable and sponsors even with the guarantee of exchange rate might be left with a residual risk of unconvertible income. A clear position on guarantees of exchange rates for project with VND revenues would remove the uncertainty.

The governing law for projects with a foreign contracting party or guaranteed by a competent authority in case the parties are two Vietnamese entities, may be a foreign law if not contradictory to the Vietnamese conflict of law rules. There is an uncertainty as whether the Government guarantees offtake or revenues for PPP projects or contracts under foreign or international law.

Furthermore, projects in sectors such as transport, renewable energy as well as traditional thermal power projects should be prioritized and if PPP projects' proposals were not satisfactory, this implies to attract more foreign investors to develop sustainable projects. In this idea, the Vietnamese Government should financially support projects through guarantees or profitable VGF. In addition, establishing new guidelines on the preparation of PPP program will enhance projects' planning and financing.

Opportunities within the PPP program

Many PPP projects are signed or about to be signed and all information related to PPP programs are compiled in a dedicated website provided by the Ministry of Planning and Investment and the Authorized State Agencies (ASAs), the latest also having its own list of projects. Achieving a successful PPP program and promoting infrastructure development in Vietnam require more efforts which could start with letting investors choose between PPP Decree and Investment Law. Indeed, imposing the PPP Decree as the exclusive way of developing infrastructure would be counter-effective regarding economy competitiveness.

As power demand is increasing in Vietnam, coal-fired power projects are under negotiations to be set in place for the time renewable energy will be sufficient to replace coal-fired energy. Due to the Paris Agreement, private investors in the coal-fired power sector will be getting rarer to turn to green energy projects.

Finally, the road sector is vital for economy and climate and yet, the risk allocation and concession principles as well as precisions on the bidding process are still expected in the Vietnamese legislation. Those issues should be solved to allow foreign investors' involvement in the development of transport infrastructure.

Outlook on the EVFTA

As the EVFTA, officially signed on December 2nd 2015, is expected to enter into force by January 2018, many consequences will emerge. Concerning access to market, Vietnam will be in a privileged situation as the only country of South-East Asia (except for Singapore which does not stand as a direct concurrent) to have signed such an agreement. Both Vietnam and the EU will access a market of hundreds of millions people.

Besides, Vietnam and the EU's commitments go further than the World Trade Organization's ones especially in power/energy sector, maritime transport which shows a real effort to create the most sustainable and profitable environment for business and investment. In this idea, the Vietnamese legislation has been amended to become investor-friendly like the Law on Enterprises, the Investment Law and the PPP Decree. Some regulations still need development or implementation but we can expect new provisions and legislation with the entry into force of the EVFTA.

Most important issues

–       The impossibility of a mortgage on land use rights for BOT foreign contractors must be rearranged urgently by allowing a certain form of land or building security to insure BOT projects.

–       The licensing procedure for BOT investors and contractors should be simplified and regulations on VGF and PDF should be provided.

–       A review of the Government's guarantees and conditions of granting guarantees should be established as to avoid investors' discouragement at the preparation phase.

–       Investment in coal-fired sector might become rarer due to the Paris Agreement which encourages investment in green energy.

–       The road sector investment is uncertain when it should be supported to allow foreign investors' involvement in transport infrastructure development.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions