United States: Not Entitled To Makewholes? Not So Fast

Throwing yet another wrench into the long-running and hard fought bankruptcy proceedings of Energy Future Holdings Corp., et al.,1 the Third Circuit recently reversed the decisions of the Delaware bankruptcy and district courts and held that certain noteholders are entitled to receive more than an estimated $670 million in so-called "makewhole" premiums under their respective indentures where the debt was automatically accelerated upon the issuer's bankruptcy filing and the notes were subsequently repaid, even in the absence of express language in the indentures providing that such premiums were triggered under an automatic acceleration.

As discussed below, the Third Circuit's decision expressly rejects the reasoning and holdings of lower courts in the Second Circuit interpreting similar language, creating significant uncertainty about how such provisions may be treated going forward.

EFH Factual Background

On April 29, 2014, Energy Future Intermediate Holding Company, LLC and EFIH Finance, Inc. (collectively, the "EFIH Debtors") filed petitions for relief under chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code in Delaware. The EFIH Debtors sought approval of debtor-in-possession financing (the "DIP Financing"), in part, to repay all of their outstanding first lien notes originally maturing in 2020 (the "First Lien Notes"), and to settle certain noteholders' claims (the "DIP Motion").2 The DIP Motion also sought a determination that any noteholders who did not agree to the treatment set forth in the DIP Motion were not entitled to any makewhole payment or related claims.

The indenture trustee for the First Lien Notes (the "First Lien Trustee") objected to the DIP Motion, arguing that the non-settling holders of the First Lien Notes (the "First Lien Noteholders were entitled to a secured claim for an amount described in the indenture (the "First Lien Indenture") as the "Applicable Premium" in an amount totaling not less than $431 million because, among other things: (i) an "Optional Redemption" as defined under the First Lien Indenture would occur when the First Lien Notes were repaid and (ii) the EFIH Debtors intentionally defaulted by filing bankruptcy to avoid paying the Applicable Premium. Shortly thereafter, the First Lien Trustee commenced an adversary proceeding seeking a ruling on the First Lien Noteholders' entitlement to the Applicable Premium upon the repayment of the First Lien Notes.3

On June 6, 2014, the Bankruptcy Court approved the DIP Financing, the EFIH Debtors' use of the DIP Financing to pay the outstanding First Lien Notes, and the settlement resolving certain noteholders' claims for the Applicable Premium.4 The order approved the repayment of the principal balance of and accrued interest on the First Lien Notes, but specifically preserved all parties' rights with respect to any makewhole claims arising as a result of the repayment.

On June 19, 2014, in accordance with the order approving the DIP Motion, the EFIH Debtors repaid all First Lien Noteholders their full principal and accrued interest (other than disputed amounts of interest and any makewhole payments) and paid the settling noteholders an agreed upon amount to settle any remaining claims under the First Lien Notes.

The First Lien Noteholders continued to pursue their claims for the Applicable Premium through their adversary proceeding.

Shortly after the bankruptcy filing, the EFIH Debtors indicated that they also reserved the right to seek to repay two tranches of second lien notes, originally maturing in 2021 and 2022, respectively (the "Second Lien Notes"). On June 16, 2014, the trustees for the Second Lien Notes (the "Second Lien Trustees") commenced their own adversary proceeding seeking a ruling on the entitlement of holders of the Second Lien Notes (the "Second Lien Noteholders") to makewhole payments under the terms of their indenture (the "Second Lien Indenture") in the event of such a repayment.5

With the Bankruptcy Court's permission, the EFIH Debtors refinanced a portion of the Second Lien Notes on March 10, 2015 without paying the Applicable Premium.

The Bankruptcy Court Decision

The parties' respective arguments during the makewhole adversary proceedings turned on the correct interpretation of the following provisions of the indentures:

  • Section 3.07(a) of the First Lien Indenture specifies what constitutes an Optional Redemption, and states:

At any time prior to December 1, 2015, the Issuer may redeem all or a part of the Notes at a redemption price equal to 100% of the principal amount of the Notes redeemed plus the Applicable Premium as of, and accrued and unpaid interest to, the date of redemption (the "Redemption Date") . . . .

  • Section 1.01 of the First Lien Indenture defines Applicable Premium as follows:

"Applicable Premium" means, with respect to any Note on any Redemption Date, the greater of: (1) 1.0% of the principal amount of such Note; and (2) the excess, if any, of (a) the present value at such Redemption Date of (i) the redemption price of such Note at December 1, 2015 (such redemption price as set forth in the table appearing under Section 3.07(d) hereof), plus (ii) all required interest payments due on such Note through December 1, 2015 (excluding accrued but unpaid interest to the Redemption Date), computed using a discount rate equal to the Treasury Rate as of such Redemption Date plus 50 basis points; over (b) the principal amount of such Note.

  • Section 6.01 of the First Lien Indenture defines the various Events of Default and, more specifically, Sections 6.01(a)(6) and (a)(7) specify Events of Default related to bankruptcy. In particular, Section 6.01(a)(6)(i) states that an Event of Default occurs when EFIH "commences proceedings to be adjudicated bankrupt or insolvent."
  • The acceleration clause in Section 6.02 of the First Lien Indenture explains the consequences of this bankruptcy-caused Event of Default:

[I]n the case of an Event of Default arising under clause (6) or (7) of Section 6.01(a) hereof, all outstanding Notes shall be due and payable immediately without further action or notice.

  • Section 6.02 of the First Lien Indenture also provides that, in the event of an acceleration of the First Lien Notes, the First Lien Trustee possesses a qualified right to effectively decelerate the First Lien Notes through the act of rescission:

The Holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Notes by written notice to the Trustee may on behalf of all the Holders waive any existing Default and its consequences under the Indenture except a continuing Default in the payment of interest on, premium, if any, or the principal of any Note (held by a nonconsenting Holder) and rescind any acceleration with respect to the Notes and its consequences (so long as such rescission would not conflict with any judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction).

These provisions of the Second Lien Indenture are substantially identical, except with respect to the acceleration clause under section 6.02, which provides that if the EFIH Debtors file for bankruptcy:

all principal of and premium, if any, interest . . .[,] and any other monetary obligations on the outstanding Notes shall be due and payable immediately" (emphasis added).

In connection with summary judgment motions filed by the parties to the First Lien Trustee's adversary proceeding, the Bankruptcy Court held that when the EFIH Debtors filed for bankruptcy, the First Lien Notes automatically accelerated and became due and payable immediately pursuant to Section 6.01(a)(6)(i).6

The Bankruptcy Court noted that there is no reference in Section 6.02 of the First Lien Indenture to the payment of the "Applicable Premium" upon an automatic acceleration, nor is Section 3.07 (regarding Optional Redemptions) incorporated into Section 6.02. Indeed, the Bankruptcy Court observed that the concept of an Applicable Premium only arises in the optional redemption provision under Section 3.07.

The Bankruptcy Court then turned to Second Circuit case law, including Momentive,7 regarding contract interpretation under New York law, which holds that an indenture "must contain express language requiring payment of a prepayment premium upon acceleration; otherwise, it is not owed."8

The Bankruptcy Court also relied on various New York cases for the proposition that "a borrower's repayment after acceleration is not considered voluntary."9 Because "[p]repayment can only occur prior to the maturity date," and "acceleration, by definition, advances the maturity date of the debt," the Bankruptcy Court reasoned that any payment after acceleration is therefore not a prepayment but instead is payment made after maturity.

Accordingly, the Bankruptcy Court held that, in the absence of "clear and unambiguous language that a makewhole premium (here the "Applicable Premium") is due upon repayment of the First Lien Notes following a bankruptcy acceleration," the repayment of the notes following their automatic acceleration was not an Optional Redemption under the First Lien Indenture and the Applicable Premium was not owed.10

The Bankruptcy Court further held that the First Lien Noteholders were prevented from seeking to rescind the acceleration of the First Lien Notes pursuant to the terms of the First Lien Indenture by operation of the automatic stay, and that cause did not exist to lift the stay.11

In construing the Second Lien Indenture's provisions, the Bankruptcy Court adopted its findings and conclusions from the makewhole litigation for the First Lien Noteholders, finding that the different language under the Second Lien Indenture did not change its analysis.12

The District Court Decision

The Delaware District Court affirmed the Bankruptcy Court's rulings with respect to the First Lien Notes in February 2016.13 The District Court also affirmed the Bankruptcy Court's rulings with respect to the Second Lien Notes in April 2016.14

The Third Circuit Decision

The First and Second Lien Trustees brought appeals on behalf of their respective noteholders, which were consolidated in proceedings before the Third Circuit.15 They argued that the Bankruptcy and District Courts erred by holding that the indentures did not require payment of the makewhole amounts when the EFIH Debtors redeemed the notes after their maturity had accelerated.

This time, their arguments gained traction. Finding in favor of the indenture trustees, the Third Circuit reversed.

The Third Circuit first addressed the definition of redemption as used in Section 3.07 of the indentures (and distinguished from a "prepayment," which the Court conceded by definition can be made only before a maturity date), concluding that under different New York case law than was cited by the Bankruptcy Court, the term includes both pre- and post-maturity repayments of debt. The Court then went on to explain that, notwithstanding the acceleration of the notes by their own terms, the redemption was an Optional Redemption under the terms of the indentures because EFIH voluntarily filed for chapter 11. The Court reasoned that "a chapter 11 debtor that has the capacity to refinance secured debt on better terms . . . is in the same position within bankruptcy as it would be outside bankruptcy, and cannot reasonably assert that its repayment of debt is not 'voluntary.'"

Next, the Court took up the EFIH Debtors' arguments that Sections 3.07 and 6.02 represented different pathways between which the Court must choose in determining remedies following acceleration of the notes, and that Section 6.02, as the more specific provision, controlled. The Court rejected the notion that the provisions conflicted, finding that they describe different things altogether and that nothing in the indentures mandated that the application of one (acceleration) negated the other (entitlement to a prepayment premium).

The Third Circuit relied on language from the decision of the New York Court of appeals in NML Capital16 stating that "'[w]hile it is understood that acceleration advances the maturity date of the debt," there is no "rule of New York law declaring that other terms of the contract not necessarily impacted by acceleration . . . automatically cease to be enforceable after acceleration." Based on this language, the Court suggested that "parties that want obligations to cease when accelerated should say so in their agreement."

The Third Circuit also considered the impact of the additional phrase "premium, if any" in the Second Lien Indenture's acceleration provision, finding that those words "make explicit . . . the link between acceleration under § 6.02 and the make-whole for an optional redemption per § 3.07." In so holding, the Third Circuit expressly rejected the finding in Momentive that such phrasing was not specific enough to demonstrate an intent by the parties that a makewhole payment would be payable following an acceleration under Section 6.02, stating that the Court believes "the result in Momentive conflicts with that indenture's text and fails to honor the parties' bargain."

The Third Circuit seemed to find especially relevant testimony that, months before the bankruptcy, the EFIH Debtors stated their intention to redeem the notes prior to their stated maturity. In addition, the Court stressed that the refinancing of the notes was done over the noteholders' objection. That analysis is arguably at odds with traditional canons of contractual interpretation, which limit a court's views to what the parties intended and bargained for at the time the contract was entered into.

The Third Circuit's decision effectively shifts the burden from one requiring that the debt instrument explicitly provide that makewhole payments are due upon acceleration in order for noteholders to receive such payments upon acceleration due to a bankruptcy to a requirment that the debt instrument must explicitly provide that a borrower has the right to pay off notes ahead of schedule following a bankruptcy filing without paying a makewhole amount.

Next Steps

It remains to be seen whether the EFIH Debtors will seek a rehearing or appeal of the Third Circuit's decision. In the meantime, they have indefinitely postponed the hearing to confirm their second proposed plan of reorganization for the EFIH Debtors, which was scheduled to commence on December 1, 2016. The proposed plan contains as a condition of effectiveness that all EFIH first and second lien makewhole claims will be disallowed. Accordingly, if the Third Circuit decision stands, the plan as currently proposed will not be capable of becoming effective, absent a waiver of that condition precedent, and the payment in cash of the additional makewhole claim amounts by the plan's proponents.


Language matters. Noteholders should carefully parse the language in their indentures to understand the risks involved. Are makewhole premiums due upon "redemptions" before a certain date or only upon "prepayments"? Does the indenture expressly provide for the termination of makewhole premiums upon acceleration for certain reasons? Or is it silent altogether?

Jurisdiction matters. The Third Circuit ruling heightens the current confusion surrounding the enforceability of makewhole provisions in bankruptcy cases in the Second Circuit. Unless and until that confusion is resolved (which may happen relatively soon in connection with the Momentive proceedings, discussed below), the venue in which an issuer's bankruptcy case is filed could prove critical in deciding whether that issuer's noteholders are entitled to makewhole payments.

Condition of the borrower may matter. The Momentive case relied upon by the Bankruptcy Court and expressly rejected by the Third Circuit is currently on appeal to the Second Circuit.17 Following oral argument, the matter was taken under advisement by the Second Circuit on November 9, 2016, shortly before the EFIH opinion came out on November 17, 2016. The indenture trustees in that case have urged that issues raised by the two cases are identical and the Second Circuit should similarly overturn the lower courts' decisions and find that the makewhole provisions under the applicable indentures were triggered. The Momentive debtors and other parties in interest have opposed that position, asserting that the cases are distinguishable because, among other things, the insolvency of the Momentive debtors is undisputed, and therefore, equitable considerations weigh in favor of denying the payment of makewhole amounts since other creditors are not being paid in full.  In contrast, in the EFH cases, the Bankruptcy Court presumed the EFIH Debtors were solvent for purposes of the makewhole litigation. It is uncertain whether the Second Circuit will agree that this factor is relevant, much less determinative.


1.In re Energy Future Holdings Corp., No. 14-10979 (Bankr. D. Del.).

2.In re Energy Future Holdings Corp., No. 14-10979 (Bankr. D. Del., Apr. 29, 2014) (ECF# 74).

3.CSC Trust Co. of Del. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), Adv. Proc. No. 14-50363 (Bankr. D. Del. May 15, 2014) (ECF# 1).

4.In re Energy Future Holdings Corp., No. 14-10979 (Bankr. D. Del., June 6, 2014) (ECF# 859).

5.Computershare Trust Company NA v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Company LLC (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), Adv. Proc. No. 14-50405 (Bankr. D. Del. June 16, 2014) (ECF# 1).

6.Del. Trust Co. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), 527 B.R. 178 (Bankr. D. Del. 2015).

7.In re MPM Silicones, LLC, et al., No. 14-22503-RDD, 2014 WL 4436335, at *13-14 (Bankr. S.D.N.Y. Sept. 9, 2014) ("Momentive").

8.Citing Northwestern Mut. Life Ins. Co. v. Uniondale Realty Assocs., 816 N.Y.S.2d 831, 836 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2006) ("A prepayment premium will not be enforced under default circumstances in the absence of a clause which so states."); In re South Side House, LLC, 451 B.R. 248, 268 (Bankr. E.D.N.Y. 2011) ("[A] lender is not entitled to prepayment consideration after a default unless the parties' agreement expressly requires it."), aff'd U.S. Bank Nat'l Ass'n v. South Side House, LLC, No. 11-4135 (ARR), 2012 WL 273119 (E.D.N.Y. Jan. 30, 2012); Premier Entm't Biloxi v. U.S. Bank Nat'l Ass'n (In re Premier Entm't Biloxi LLC), 445 B.R. 582, 626; Momentive at *13-14.

9.South Side, 451 B.R. at 268; see also U.S. Bank Tr. Nat'l Ass'n v. AMR Corp. (In re AMR Corp.), 730 F.3d 88, 103 (2d Cir. 2013) (rejecting the claim that an accelerated repayment was a "voluntary redemption").

10.See CSC Trust Co. of Del. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), Adv. Proc. No. 14-50363 (Bankr. D. Del. Mar. 26, 2015) (ECF# 245)., at ¶ 51.

11.Del. Trust Co. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), 533 B.R. 106, 116 (Bankr. D. Del. 2015).

12.Computershare Tr. Co. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), 539 B.R. 723, 733 (Bankr. D. Del. 2015).

13.Del. Trust Co. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), No. CV 15-620 RGA, 2016 WL 627343, at *1–3 (D. Del. Feb. 16, 2016).

14.Computershare Trust Co. v. Energy Future Intermediate Holding Co. (In re Energy Future Holdings Corp.), No. CV 15-1011-RGA, 2016 WL 1451045, at *4 (D. Del. Apr. 12, 2016).

15.In re Energy Future Holdings Corp., No. 16-1351, 2016 WL 6803710 (3d Cir. Nov. 17, 2016).

16.NML Capital v. Republic of Argentina, 952 N.E.2d 482, 489–90 (N.Y. Ct. App. 2011).

17.US Bank, Nat'l Assoc. v. Wilmington Savings Fund Society, FSB, (In re MPM Silicones, L.L.C.), No. 15-1824 (2d Cir.).

Because of the generality of this update, the information provided herein may not be applicable in all situations and should not be acted upon without specific legal advice based on particular situations.

© Morrison & Foerster LLP. All rights reserved

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.