United States: Death, But Not Taxes

Given the time period a mineral title opinion encompasses, it is almost inevitable that there will be at least one instance of a mineral owner vanishing from the records. A likely explanation is the owner's death, but the absence of an explanation creates a host of issues that stem from the uncertainty of ownership. 

Before beginning this discussion, some context is necessary. The issues raised in this series will be presented in a title opinion, which has a purpose and limitations.

A title opinion's purpose depends on the nature of the transaction. If the intent is to acquire title to a tract, the title opinion recommends what should be done to acquire marketable title. If the intent is to develop the minerals, the title opinion recommends what should be done to establish defensible title. Generally, marketable title is a higher standard than defensible title and is based on legal standards, while defensible title is based on business interest and risk tolerance where the goal is to avoid accusations of intentional, or bad faith, trespass.

In the context of the varied issues that arise when a mineral owner vanishes from public records and different approaches to address those problems, we will endeavor to differentiate between what is recommended for marketable title and what is recommended for defensible title.

A title opinion is always subject to certain limitations because it is only an opinion. Whether based on an abstract or on a stand-up title examination, even if the title opinion sets forth ownership of a tract, it does so subject to:

  • General limitations, which protect the author against matters outside of the public record and defects in the materials that form the basis of the opinion;
  • General title defects, which set forth agreed-upon assumptions regarding commonplace defects as well as potential defects; and
  • Specific title defects, which are those specific to the tract examined that are sufficiently significant or recent to merit a recommended course of action to cure.

When is it safe to assume someone is dead?

So you have an abstract or an opinion, and the flowchart and/or statement of ownership includes "the heirs, successors and assigns of...," or you notice that an owner has had no activity for years. In this situation, you have to assume that the abstractor or title attorney has conducted what is considered a thorough search to determine if the interest owner is deceased.

When is it safe to assume that he or she is dead?

The first option is to establish, based on common sense and as a result of risk management, a date in the past that, if no activity has since occurred, is a valid basis for assuming that the person is deceased. This option is not recommended under any circumstance because it generally creates more questions than it resolves. For example, if a person is assumed to be dead because they have no recorded activity in the last 35 years, this assumption does nothing to identify their heirs. From a business standpoint, this option is a good first step because it reduces the cost of abstracting, but it should only be the first step in the process of identifying the current owners. 

The second option is a search of familysearch.org, ancestry.com, findagrave.com and other sites that all have remarkable amounts of information. While you should not assume they are completely accurate, the sites provide enough information to justify further investigation. Before investigating further, gather as much extrinsic information as possible, starting with full names, date and location of birth, spouses and children's names, and last known address. Once you have sufficient cause to believe that a person has in fact died, it is important to determine where they died to determine if any administration of their estate has taken place. This is recommended if you seek to establish defensible title.

"Skip tracers" may be employed to answer many of these questions. If costs are of concern due to market downturn, you may consider which tasks can be done in house and which should be outsourced.

The safer option, and the one to pursue if you seek marketable title, is to have a court answer the question for you. Generally, a person who is absent from their place of residence for seven years (five years in Ohio) and unheard from by people whom they routinely contacted is presumed to be dead. If the individual was exposed to peril that endangered his or her life when their absence began, the time of their absence before the presumption of death arises may be reduced.

In every situation there must be a court proceeding to declare the person dead. Applicable laws of states in the Marcellus/Utica Shale and the Illinois Basin are as follows:




Chapter 57, Title 20


Chapter 2121

West Virginia*

Chapter 44, Article 9


KRS 422.130, 132 and 135


IC 29-2-5-1; 32-30-3-18, 19


755 ILCS 5/6-20; 5/10-2, 3

*May be used for non-residents who own real estate interests within state

**Does not differentiate between resident and non-residents if absence is preceded by a "catastrophic event"

Death is inevitable and also the most likely explanation why an interest owner vanishes from public records. That does not mean it is always the correct answer. When confronted with a vanished interest owner, the first step is to verify if they died.  If they have, and you can determine where, you will have the information needed to determine what effect their death has on the title.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions