United States: Ninth Circuit Poised To Address The "Without Authorization" Debate Under The Computer Fraud And Abuse Act Again

Last Updated: January 15 2016
Article by Amy Abeloff

Imagine if you could manage all of your social media platforms on one app.  Believe it or not, there was an app for that (or, at least a website), created by a company named Power Ventures ("Power").  Back in 2008, Power instituted its "Power 100" campaign, which offered its users the chance to win $100 if they invited 100 friends to join.  After asking its users' permission, Power would access its users' Facebook accounts to send messages to friends of its users to encourage them to join Power.  These messages were sent to friends of Power users from email addresses containing Facebook in the source name (e.g., amy@facebookmail.com), thus giving the impression that the messages came from Facebook personnel, not from Power.

Lo and behold, the "real" Facebook became aware of Power's plan and tried to stop it through the use of an IP block, which Power was able to overcome.  Facebook continued combatting Power's activity by sending cease and desist letters, reiterating how Power's activities went beyond the scope of its authorized use, but Power failed to act in compliance with these requests.  Thereafter, Facebook slapped Power with a lawsuit, alleging (among other things) a violation of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act ("CFAA"), primarily based on Power's unauthorized use of Facebook data and systems.  Four years later in 2012, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California found that Power indeed violated Section (a)(2)(C) of the CFAA.  The following year, the district court issued an order granting not only a permanent injunction against Power, but also prescribed damages in excess of $3 million to be paid to Facebook.

Status of the Case

As perhaps any party would do following such a dismal outcome at district court, Power decided to appeal to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.  Oral arguments were heard in December, and a Ninth Circuit court opinion is expected to come down in the coming months.

Ninth Circuit Oral Argument

At oral argument, counsel for Power argued that Power could not have violated the CFAA because it never owned the data at issue in the case.  As such, it was beyond Facebook's power to grant or deny authorization to user accounts to third-parties.  Counsel pressed that acting with authorization means one has authorization from the owner of the data; Facebook, according to Power's counsel, explicitly disclaimed ownership of such data.  In other words, because individual Facebook users granted Power access to their accounts, Power was acting within the scope of authorization, and is therefore not liable to Facebook under the CFAA.

From another standpoint came Power's former CEO, Steve Vachani, who made a statement that Facebook, now a social media giant, is acting anti-competitively by still litigating this case after seven years.  Counsel for Facebook disagreed, saying that his client was not being anti-competitive, but rather acting in compliance with its legal obligations.

Third-Party Perspectives

This is not the only CFAA-related case the Ninth Circuit has faced as of late.  Some time ago, the court heard oral arguments for the U.S. v. Nosal case, blogged here.  Given the recent interest in this CFAA line of cases, commentators have piped up and expressed their thoughts on the CFAA and its application to password sharing scenarios.

For instance, the Electronic Frontier Foundation ("EFF") wrote as amici in support of Power's position, noting that Facebook's use of the CFAA is "dangerous to follow-on innovators and consumers and would criminalize widely accepted Internet behavior."

Additionally, Professor Orin Kerr appears to support curbing the interpretation and application of the CFAA to password sharing scenarios and believes any user of a personal account may authorize a third-party agent to access the account, but such would not be the case if the individual were acting within the scope of employment.  In other words, if the individual gave her employer's account credentials to a third-party agent for the third-party's own purposes, that would not constitute authorization because it would be beyond the employer's grant of authorization to its employee.

Takeaways

Given the compensatory and equitable damages awarded to Facebook at the district court level, it will be especially interesting to see if the Ninth Circuit upholds the district court findings and damages, especially against a now defunct company.  Upholding the district court's damages award will certainly call practitioners and their clients to attention.

It will also be interesting to see if the Ninth Circuit somehow consolidates its rationale in Nosal into this case, and finally carves a distinction between password sharing in the workplace and personal password sharing scenarios.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions