United States: Taking The Right Steps When Using An FLP Or LLC

Last Updated: November 20 2015
Article by Adam Pechin

If you wish to transfer large amounts of wealth to your family at discounted values for gift tax purposes, you might consider forming a family limited partnership (FLP) or a limited liability company (LLC). However, a pitfall to be aware of when using an FLP or LLC is the step transaction doctrine. Let us take a closer look at how FLPs and LLCs work and how to avoid the step transaction doctrine.

Using an FLP or LLC

There are standard procedures for establishing an FLP or LLC:

  1. Set up the vehicle, initially retaining all of the partnership or membership units;
  2. Contribute assets to the entity, such as cash, real estate, marketable securities and/or business interests; and
  3. Give (or sell) minority interests in the entity to family members or to trusts for their benefit.

This process allows you to retain control over assets while shifting most of the ownership interests to your family at a minimal tax cost. For gift tax purposes, minority FLP and LLC interests generally are entitled to substantial valuation discounts (often in the neighborhood of 40% to 50%) for lack of marketability and control.

Avoiding Missteps

To ensure the desired tax treatment, the FLP or LLC should have at least one legitimate nontax business purpose, such as maintaining control over a family business, consolidating management of an investment portfolio or protecting family assets from creditors. Also, you must treat the entity as a legitimate, independent business, observing all business formalities and documentation requirements.

Even with legitimate nontax reasons for forming an FLP or LLC, families frequently get themselves into trouble because they are lax about business formalities or they commingle personal and business assets. Failing to adhere to these formalities may cause the IRS to conclude that the entity is a sham, disregard it for gift and estate tax purposes and assess gift or estate tax on the full value of the assets, rather than the discounted amount.

Another common mistake is to complete all of the transfers at around the same time. People often set up an FLP or LLC, transfer assets to the entity and transfer FLP or LLC interests to family members all in the same meeting. If the IRS determines that the transactions were simultaneous — or, worse, that FLP or LLC interests were transferred before the entity was funded — it will likely apply the step transaction doctrine and treat the arrangement as an indirect gift of the underlying assets, taxable at full value. Even if the transactions are completed in the right sequence, the IRS may challenge the arrangement as an indirect gift under the step transaction doctrine.

Defining the Doctrine

The IRS sometimes invokes the step transaction doctrine to collapse a series of transactions into a single transaction for gift tax purposes. This dramatically alters the tax outcome.

Under the step transaction doctrine, separate steps may be collapsed into a single transaction if the parties, at the time of the first step, had a binding commitment to undertake the later steps. In addition, the IRS may invoke the step doctrine if the steps were prearranged parts of a single transaction designed to produce a particular end result, or are mutually interdependent — that is, so closely intertwined that they are meaningless on their own.

Binding commitments are uncommon, but it is fairly common for the IRS or a court to invoke "end result" or "mutual interdependence" tests. Under these tests, a key to avoiding step transaction treatment is to establish that the intermediate steps have tax-independent significance. Among other things, this means that enough time should pass between funding an FLP or LLC and transferring minority interests so the assets are subject to "real economic risk" during the interim.

Unfortunately, there is no magic number for determining how long you should wait; it depends on the nature of the assets, economic factors and other circumstances. Generally, funding an FLP or LLC and transferring interests later the same day will not be enough.

However, the U.S. Tax Court has held that a six-day delay was sufficient. In that case, parents funded an FLP with heavily traded, highly volatile stock and assumed the risk during the six-day period that the stock's value would fluctuate before they transferred limited partnership interests to their children. More stable assets, such as cash, less-volatile securities or real estate, may require a longer waiting period to establish economic risk.

Getting the Timing Right

Using an FLP or LLC is a smart strategy for transferring a large sum of assets to loved ones at a discounted value for gift tax purposes. However, before taking action, work with your qualified tax or legal advisors to set up the ideal structure and determine the appropriate waiting period between funding an FLP or LLC and transferring interests to your family. Doing so can help you avoid having the IRS invoke the step transaction doctrine on your FLP or LLC.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Adam Pechin
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions