United States: Absolute Pollution Exclusions Aren’t Always Absolute

Last Updated: July 4 2013
Article by Daven G. Lowhurst

A recent decision by the Eighth Circuit Court of Appeals confirms that when it comes to coverage for environmental contamination claims, the so-called "absolute" pollution exclusions aren't always absolute.  (The Doe Run Resources Corp. v. Lexington Ins. Co., 2013 BL 155849 (8th Cir., June 13, 2013).) 

 Doe Run Resources is the largest lead producer in the Western Hemisphere.  It operates facilities in Missouri that extract and crush lead ore to make lead concentrate.  The leftover material, called chat, and tailings are deposited by Doe Run into a mammoth 500 acre waste pile.  The waste pile material can be sold for certain commercial uses. 

 Two environmental lawsuits – the Briley and McSpadden lawsuits – were filed against Doe Run seeking damages suffered by minors exposed to lead and other toxic substances arising out of Doe Run's lead operations.  Doe Run turned to Lexington for coverage, but Lexington refused to defend Doe Run, citing absolute pollution exclusions in its policies which (a) in the later policies excluded coverage for injuries "which would not have occurred in whole or part but for the actual, alleged or threatened discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration, release or escape of pollutants," and (b) in the earlier policies also required a "discharge, dispersal, release, or escape" of "pollutants or contaminants."  These exclusions are sometimes referred to as "absolute" pollution exclusions because they do not contain an exception found in earlier vintage policies for a discharge, dispersal, release, or escape that is "sudden and accidental."

 Doe Run filed a declaratory relief action against Lexington to enforce its duty to defend Doe Run.  The trial court granted summary judgment to Lexington, finding that the absolute pollution exclusions in its policies barred coverage for both the Briley and McSpadden lawsuits.  Doe Run appealed.

 Applying Missouri law, the Eighth Circuit compared the allegations in the Briley and McSpadden lawsuits with the language of the Lexington pollution exclusions.  The Briley lawsuit asserted various tort claims all premised on allegations that Doe Run is liable for causing the release, transport, and deposition of hazardous wastes, metals, and other toxic substances from the waste pile onto other property.  The Eighth Circuit upheld the trial court's grant of summary judgment to Lexington with regard to the Briley lawsuit, finding that these allegations fell within Lexington's pollution exclusions. 

 On the other hand, the McSpadden lawsuit, despite having been filed by the same law firm and containing allegations similar or identical to those in the Briley lawsuit, also contained allegations not found in the Briley lawsuit.  Specifically, the McSpadden lawsuit alleged that Doe Run (a) permitted the waste pile to be left open and available for public use as a park (including for sledding, riding four-wheelers and dirt bikes, and generally playing as if the waste pile were sand at a beach), and (b) distributed the waste pile material for use throughout the county on roads, in buildings, and in children's sandboxes. 

 The Eighth Circuit found that these additional allegations made a difference: 

To the extent the McSpadden complaint alleged bodily injury or property damage resulting from the release of hazardous wastes or toxic substances, the pollution exclusions bar coverage...  [But] the McSpadden complaint [also] alleged bodily injury or property damage from two causes that did not necessarily entail a "release" of hazardous wastes or toxic substances...  First, plaintiffs alleged that Doe Run distributed chat and other toxic substances into the community...  "Distribute" is not among the transitive verbs that trigger the pollution exclusion.  Furthermore, the distribution of material from the [waste pile] for use as a product is markedly different than the inadvertent "discharge, dispersal, seepage, migration, release or escape" of those waste materials.

 In other words, unlike the Briley lawsuit, the McSpadden lawsuit was not premised solely on an alleged release of hazardous materials.  Rather, it included allegations that Doe Run distributed the hazardous materials into the community, and also that Doe Run caused injuries when it left the waste pile open and available for use by the public.  Since, under Missouri law, the broad duty to defend "arises whenever there is a potential or possible liability to pay based on the facts at the outset of the case," the Eighth Circuit ruled that Lexington must defend Doe Run against the McSpadden lawsuit.  Accordingly, the court reversed the summary judgment dismissing Doe Run's coverage claims relating to the McSpadden lawsuit.

 In sum, despite the fact that the McSpadden lawsuit alleged injuries due to environmental contamination, the insurer's absolute pollution exclusions did not bar the insurer's broad defense obligations.  Rather, because the lawsuit included allegations of injuries from hazardous wastes that had not been "released" by the policyholder, the insurer was bound to defend its insured.  Thus, complaints alleging harm from environmental contamination should be reviewed carefully from a coverage perspective, even where modern vintage CGL policies are involved, since absolute pollution exclusions aren't always absolute.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Daven G. Lowhurst
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions