United States: New Human Trafficking Laws And US Government Initiatives Make Anti-Trafficking A Compliance Priority For Businesses In 2013

Last Updated: February 20 2013
Article by Brittany Prelogar, Laura Ardito and Michael J. Navarre

In the wake of National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month in January 20131 and recent legal measures aimed at eradicating human trafficking, companies should take steps to ensure their operations and supply chains are free of forced labor and other severe forms of trafficking. The US government estimates that as many as 27 million persons globally2 are victims of trafficking in persons, involving the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain labor or commercial sex acts.3 Companies associated with human trafficking not only face serious legal and enforcement risks,4 but also risk severely tarnishing their brands in the eyes of consumers, investors, employees, and other stakeholders. Forced labor can occur in any industry. Those relying on overseas, migrant, or low-wage workers – such as mining, construction, agriculture, manufacturing, textiles, and hospitality – are most at risk.5 Several recent initiatives have tightened anti-trafficking legal requirements for government contractors, but also provide useful guidance for all businesses seeking to root out modern day slavery from their supply chains. This advisory surveys recent developments in this area and outlines steps companies can take to update their ethics and compliance programs to address trafficking-related risks.


A. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2013

On February 12, 2013, the US Senate approved the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2013 as an amendment to the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013.6 The TVPRA of 2013 would reauthorize appropriations from 2014-2017 for various programs designed to assist victims of trafficking, impose additional reporting and accountability measures on government agencies involved in anti-trafficking programs, and enhance anti-trafficking measures in existing laws. Among other measures, the TVPRA of 2013 directs various US government agencies to establish partnerships with private entities, including corporations, to ensure that US citizens do not use materials produced with the use of trafficked labor and that private entities do not contribute to trafficking in persons involving sexual exploitation.7 It also would amend the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), which already includes peonage, slavery, and trafficking in persons as predicate offenses,8 to also include fraud in foreign labor contracting as a predicate offense for RICO violations.9 The US House of Representatives will now consider the bill.

B. Heightened Requirements and Sanctions for Government Contractors

Federal government contractors have long been prohibited from engaging in human trafficking. The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) and subsequent reauthorizations, for example, prohibited contractors, subcontractors, and their employees from engaging in severe forms of trafficking, procuring a commercial sex act, or using forced labor in the performance of a US government contract or subcontract. Since 2006, the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)10 has restated this prohibition, and also required contractors to immediately inform their contracting officer if they receive "[a]ny information...from any source (including host country law enforcement) that alleges a Contractor employee, subcontractor, or subcontractor employee has engaged in" severe forms of trafficking, procuring a commercial sex act, or using forced labor in the performance of a contract. The FAR otherwise provided little specific guidance for contractors seeking to comply with these requirements. A recent executive order and an amendment to the Fiscal Year 2013 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) aim to both strengthen protections against trafficking in persons in federal contracts and add certain compliance requirements to the existing regulatory landscape.

Executive Order "Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking In Persons In Federal Contracts"

On September 25, 2012, President Obama issued an executive order, "Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking In Persons In Federal Contracts,"11 to help ensure that US government contracts are performed free of trafficking and forced labor. Reminding the business community that the US government is "the largest single purchaser of goods and services in the world," the Order aims to provide those that contract with the US government with tools to enforce existing anti-trafficking policy and further clarify the steps that federal contractors and subcontractors must take to fully comply with anti-trafficking requirements. The Order calls for steps to be taken in early 2013 to amend the FAR to prohibit a list of specific trafficking-related activities, including charging recruitment fees to employees; denying employees access to their passports, drivers' licenses, and other identification documents; and using misleading recruitment practices such as materially misrepresenting the amount of wages, living conditions, and the work location. Further, in contracts performed outside the United States, contractors and subcontractors with overseas projects must pay return transportation costs at the end of employment for third-country nationals who travelled for the purpose of working on the contract, unless certain very limited exceptions apply.

The regulations implementing the Order will also require that federal contractors and subcontractors agree in their contracts to allow for anti-trafficking compliance audits and investigations. Supplementing contractors' duty under existing statutes and regulations to report suspected human trafficking to contracting officials, the Order requires contracting officers that "become aware of" any trafficking-related activity to notify the agency's inspector general, the official responsible for suspension or debarment actions, and if necessary, law enforcement.

The implementing regulations also will require, for all US government contracts with work performed overseas exceeding $500,000, that each contractor and subcontractor maintain a compliance plan that includes, among other things, a program to make employees aware of the contractor's or subcontractor's anti-trafficking policy and the consequences for violating the policy, mechanisms for reporting violations, a recruitment plan that deters trafficking-related activities, a housing plan in compliance with host country safety standards (if applicable), and methods to prevent subcontractors from engaging in trafficking in persons and trafficking-related activities. These contractors and subcontractors will be required to certify that the compliance plan is in place. They must also certify that neither the contractors nor their subcontractors have, to the best of their knowledge, engaged in trafficking-related activities and that, if abuses have been found, they or their subcontractors have taken appropriate actions in response to the abuses. The plan must be posted at the workplace and on the contractor or subcontractor's website, and it must be provided upon request to the contracting officer.

The Order also directs the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) to consult with federal government management councils to develop consistent internal procedures and controls to improve monitoring of and compliance with trafficking-related statutes and regulations. The Order further directs OFPP to develop training requirements and methods to track training relating to responsibilities for deterring trafficking in persons. By September 2013, the government will also begin a process to identify industries with a history of trafficking-related activity or where there is elevated risk of trafficking due to the nature and location of the work performed. Those industries can expect increased public and government scrutiny.

End Trafficking in Government Contracting Act

On January 2, 2013 President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (NDAA) containing Title XVII, entitled Ending Trafficking in Government Contracting.12 Title XVII of the Act is similar to provisions of the President's Executive Order calling for the FAR Council to implement trafficking-in-persons compliance regulations, but also expands on other areas of trafficking enforcement. For example, the law amends the TVPA13 by increasing criminal penalties for contractors who engage in severe forms of trafficking or forced labor, and by enlarging the scope of punishable actions.

In addition to prohibiting severe forms of trafficking, the use of forced labor, and the procurement of a commercial sex act during the contract period, the NDAA prohibits contractors, subcontractors, grantees, and subgrantees from engaging in "acts that directly support or advance trafficking in persons." Much like the Order, these acts include confiscating or otherwise denying employees access to their identity documents; failing to provide or pay for return transportation for employees from outside the United States to the countries from which they were recruited (unless exempted by the federal contract or the employee is a victim of human trafficking who is seeking services in the country of employment); soliciting potential employees or offering employment through materially false representations about the employment terms and conditions; charging unreasonable recruitment or placement fees, or recruitment fees that are illegal in the country from which the employees are recruited; and, when housing is arranged or provided, failing to meet the housing and safety standards of the host country.

The act also requires agencies to obtain certifications regarding compliance with anti-human-trafficking procedures from all overseas contractors for work performed outside the United States valued at more than $500,000. These compliance procedures include maintaining a compliance plan designed to prevent, monitor, detect, and remedy human trafficking and human trafficking-related activities. Contractors also must certify that they and all subcontractors, or any agent of any subcontractors, have not engaged in severe forms of human trafficking, the use of forced labor, or the procurement of commercial sex acts during contract performance.

Finally, like the President's Order, the act implements reporting mechanisms in cases of allegations of human trafficking by a contractor or subcontractor, or agent of either, that require contracting officials to refer reports of "credible information" that a contractor or subcontractor has engaged in prohibited trafficking activities to their agency inspector general. The act also outlines remedial actions that the head of the agency must consider in cases of substantiated allegations of human trafficking, up to and including suspension and debarment of the contractor or subcontractor. And, finally, in addition to the administrative actions outlined in the President's Order, the act also requires the head of the agency to ensure that substantiated allegations of human trafficking are included in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS).

C. US Department of Labor's "Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor" Toolkit

As part of the heightened attention on trafficking and forced labor in business operations, the US Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) released a toolkit in December 2012 to help businesses identify and root out forced and child labor in their operations and supply chains. The toolkit, which can be found on ILAB's website,14 was created by ILAB in collaboration with the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The toolkit sets forth the elements of an anti-trafficking compliance plan, including engaging stakeholders, conducting risk assessments, developing and implementing a code of conduct, training employees, monitoring compliance, remediating violations of the code of conduct, conducting independent audits and reviews of the compliance program's effectiveness, and reporting publicly on the compliance system. Based on a survey of industries, ILAB also compiled examples of best practices in anti-trafficking compliance.15

D. Legislation Requiring Transparency in Efforts to Eliminate Trafficking in Supply Chains

States also have stepped up anti-trafficking initiatives and laws directed at businesses. The California Transparency in Supply Chains Act, which went into effect on January 1, 2012, requires retail sellers or manufacturers that do business in California and have annual worldwide revenues exceeding $100 million to disclose on their websites the extent to which they address and attempt to eliminate the use of forced labor in their supply chains. The state attorney general is authorized under the act to bring injunctive relief actions against companies that do not comply. Under the act, the Franchise Tax Board of California was required for the first time on November 30, 2012 to send to California's attorney general a list of companies required to disclose on their websites their efforts to eliminate the use of forced labor in their supply chains. This list will be required again on November 30, 2013. This year may also bring more clarity on the disclosure requirements based on information provided to the state attorney general, and perhaps the introduction of other state legislation modeled on this act.

A federal bill, the Business Transparency on Trafficking and Slavery Act (H.R. 2759), which is modeled on and in some ways broader than the California legislation, was introduced in 2011 but languished in Committee. We will monitor developments in this area.


These recent anti-trafficking developments emphasize the need for all companies, even those that do not contract with the federal government, to establish compliance systems that ensure their businesses and supply chains are free of forced labor and trafficking. While companies should tailor anti-trafficking efforts to address their particular risk profile, we provide a broad overview below of the elements any such program might include.

A. Risk Assessments

Risk assessments are an important step in understanding the trafficking-related risks that exist in a company's industry, particular operations, and supply chain. While human trafficking and forced labor can occur in any industry, some industries present a higher risk than others. It is important to engage a range of stakeholders to gain an accurate understanding of the risks.16 Companies then can tailor other compliance measures to address the specific risks identified.

Even where a company does not face high risks of trafficking in its own operations, the goods or services it relies on may originate from vendors, suppliers, or recruiting agents who use and/or procure trafficked, forced, or child labor. Risk assessments should consider these supply chain-related risks. A useful tool in conducting a risk assessment is the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, which is compiled by the US Department of Labor's Bureau of International Labor Affairs. In its most recent 2012 version, the List included 134 goods from 74 countries.17 Companies that determine as part of their risk assessment that they source any of the listed items from the corresponding countries should be particularly vigilant in examining those suppliers for the use of forced or child labor. Similarly, service providers that rely on overseas, migrant, or low-wage workers, particularly from countries experiencing political instability, natural disaster, or other hardships, may be more susceptible to labor trafficking and should receive closer scrutiny.

A risk assessment should also consider a company's hiring practices, including the use of labor recruiters. If a company finds in its operations or supply chains any of the trafficking-related activities prohibited by the Executive Order and the FY2013 NDAA, such as the charging of unreasonable or illegal recruitment fees, the confiscation of employees' identity documents, or fraudulent or misleading recruitment practices, this should raise a red flag. Violations uncovered by risk assessments should be immediately remedied, and, if required, reported to appropriate government officials.

B. Codes of Conduct, Policies and Procedures

Corporate codes of conduct should clearly prohibit trafficking and forced and child labor. In its toolkit, the US Department of Labor recommends that a strong code of conduct should address the International Labor Organization's core labor standards, which include employment discrimination, and freedom of association and collective bargaining.18 A code, or more detailed set of policies and procedures, should also address wages, hours, and occupational safety, and prohibit trafficking-related activities such as those outlined in the FY2013 NDAA (discussed above), even if a company is not a federal government contractor. The policies and procedures may also define vetting requirements for vendors relating to trafficking, corruption, and other human rights-related concerns. The Dhaka Principles for Migration with Dignity, which are designed to protect the basic human rights of migrant workers while they are recruited for, employed, and returning from work abroad,19 further recommend transparency and clarity in all contracts with migrant workers.

C. Supply Chain Due Diligence and Safeguards

The 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the US Department of State's Office of Trafficking in Persons emphasizes that "companies must be responsible for the full length of their extended supply chains."20 As a result, companies should endeavor to conduct due diligence on third parties presenting potential risks throughout all levels of their supply chains. Where the number of entities in the supply chain is large, companies can follow the guidance in the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, which suggests that companies should prioritize for attention those suppliers with a profile presenting the most significant risks of adverse human rights impacts, whether based on the particular operations or operating context, the goods or services involved, or other factors.21 Companies may achieve efficiencies by building anti-trafficking and other human rights-related vetting of third parties into their regular anticorruption due diligence and international regulatory screening procedures.

Based on the results of a risk assessment, companies may identify certain categories of providers that require heightened pre-contract due diligence to identify any past issues, as well as post-contract monitoring. For example, in service contracting, after conducting a country risk assessment and finding a high risk of trafficking-related activities by recruiting agents, a company may decide to hire a full-time, in-country recruiting agent or establish a permanent relationship with a single recruiter that would not use sub-agents without appropriate screening by the company. By establishing a long-term relationship, the company can monitor and dictate practices used by its recruiters to obtain host nation and third-country national labor.

Companies should also make their anti-trafficking policies known to suppliers and recruiting agents. Potential contractual safeguards include a prohibition on the use of trafficked, forced, or child labor; cooperation requirements; audit rights; and rights to suspend performance, withhold payments, and terminate the contract if violations are uncovered. Companies may also wish to consider requiring periodic certifications of compliance from suppliers in high-risk areas. Government contractors should flow down the trafficking-related requirements of their contracts with the federal government to both subcontractors and independent recruiting agents obtained to recruit service workers.

D. Training

It is important to train relevant company employees, vendors, suppliers, and others on the code of conduct, prohibited conduct, recognizing signs of trafficking and forced labor, and available reporting mechanisms. The Department of Labor toolkit recommends training suppliers to the extent possible beyond the first tier. Vendors or first-tier suppliers can also be required through contractual provisions to provide this training to other relevant links in their supply chains. With respect to government contracts, the President's Executive Order on human trafficking and the Ending Trafficking in Government Contracting provisions of the FY2013 NDAA direct relevant executive agencies to develop human trafficking training and processes to track training for all federal employees, and, in particular, the federal acquisition workforce. However, contractors should also consider training as a component of a prudent compliance plan to prevent human trafficking, which will be a requirement for certain contractors performing contracts overseas under regulations implementing the Executive Order and the FY2013 NDAA.

E. Reporting Mechanisms

Companies should have mechanisms in place that permit employees and others to report violations of the code of conduct or other human rights concerns safely and without retribution. With respect to government contracts, contractors are required by the FAR to report suspected trafficking to contracting officers,22 who in turn will be required to notify the agency's inspector general, the agency official responsible for suspension or debarment actions, and if appropriate, law enforcement. In particular, if the contracting officer, inspector general, or the head of the agency finds violations that would justify termination under section 106(g) of the TVPA, 22 U.S.C. §7104, the government may pursue suspension and debarment action against the contractor or subcontractor.23

F. Monitoring and Audits

Companies should monitor vendors and suppliers throughout the relationship for trafficking-related activities, and follow up on any red flags identified. For providers of goods and services that are more susceptible to trafficking and forced labor, periodic audits are also appropriate. The Department of Labor notes that companies with dispersed or vast supply chains usually audit them on a random and statistically representative sample basis.24 Under the Executive Order, companies that contract and subcontract with the US government will be required to agree in their contracts to fully cooperate with enforcement agencies to conduct audits and investigations on anti-trafficking compliance.

G. Remediation

Where misconduct is uncovered through an internal investigation, third party audit, or otherwise, the violation should be immediately remedied. Remedial action should both correct the violation and put preventative measures in place to ensure that it does not recur. The Luxor Implementation Guidelines to the Athens Ethical Principles,25 a set of principles against human trafficking developed by business leaders, government officials, the United Nations and NGO communities, recommend encouraging suppliers to comply with the code of conduct by providing technical assistance and positive incentives such as purchase guarantees. Likewise, the guidelines recommend negative incentives for violating the code of conduct, such as contract suspension or termination for repeat violations.

H. Transparency

Companies can expect that future anti-trafficking initiatives will follow the trend of the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act in calling for companies to disclose their efforts to ensure that their supply chains are free of forced labor and other trafficking-related activities. Even without mandatory reporting that applies to federal government contractors, the US Department of Labor toolkit, Luxor Implementation Guidelines, and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights all recommend that companies voluntarily report on their efforts to implement their codes of conduct. The UN Guiding Principles further recommend that governments "[e]ncourage, and where appropriate require business enterprises to communicate how they address their human rights impacts."26

Investors, governments, and the global community are increasingly concerned about human trafficking and forced labor in business operations. Businesses can stay ahead of the curve and exercise leadership on human rights by implementing trafficking-related compliance measures and reporting on their efforts in this area.


1. Presidential Proclamation, National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month (December 31, 2012), available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/12/31/presidential-proclamation-national-slavery-and-human-trafficking-prevent.

2. US Dep't of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Trafficking in Persons Report 2012, 7, (June 2012) available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192587.pdf.

3. "Severe forms of trafficking in persons" means-- (A) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (B) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery." US Trafficking Victims Protection Act ("TVPA"), 22 U.S.C. 7102(8).

4. As discussed further below, federal government contractors may face a variety of sanctions for trafficking-related conduct, including criminal liability and debarment. Claims against other companies and individuals have been premised on a variety of statutory and common law bases. For example, the TVPA imposes civil and criminal sanctions for violations. 18 U.S.C. § 1592, 1595 (2008); see e.g., Adhikari v. Daoud & Partners et al., 697 F. Supp. 2d 674 (S.D. Tex. 2009) (denying motion to dismiss TVPA action by Nepali laborers and surviving family members against a US contractor and its affiliates); US v. Kil Soo Lee, 472 F.3d 638 (9th Cir. Haw. 2006) (owner of garment factory in American Samoa convicted of holding workers in a condition of involuntary servitude). In addition, the TVPA adds human trafficking crimes as a predicate offense for charges under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). 18 U.S.C. §§ 1961(1)(B)(2008); see Abraham v. Singh, 480 F.3d 351 (5th Cir. 2007) (finding Indian trafficking victims had adequately alleged a pattern of racketeering activity). Injured workers can also bring a claim in federal court under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). 29 U.S.C. § 201 et seq.; see Chellen v. John Pickle Co., 446 F. Supp. 2d 1247 (N.D. Okla. 2006) (claims against employer by workers recruited in India and brought to United States by employer, alleging violations of Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), race discrimination in violation of § 1981, deceit, false imprisonment, and intentional infliction of emotional distress.). Further, numerous cases claiming civil liability under the Alien Tort Statute (ATS), 28 U.S.C. § 1350, have been premised on allegations of forced labor, child labor, or labor trafficking. See, e.g., Jane Doe I. v. Reddy, 2004 WL 5512966 (N.D. Cal. 2002) (alleging forced labor and servitude in India and US; settled). While corporate liability under the Alien Tort Statute and the statute's extraterritorial application are currently under review by the US Supreme Court, that decision will not affect the array of other statutory and common law bases used to enforce trafficking in persons proscriptions. Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co., 621 F.3d 111 (2d Cir. 2010), cert. granted, 80 U.S.L.W. 3237 (US Octtober 17, 2011) (No. 10-1491).

5. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs, What are Child Labor and Forced Labor?, http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/What-are-Child-Labor-and-Forced-Labor.htm; International Organization for Migration, et al., Caring for Trafficked Persons, publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/CT_Handbook.pdf.

6. S. 47, 113th Cong. § 1201 et seq. (as passed by Senate, February 12, 2013).

7. Id. at § 1202.

8. See 18 U.S.C. § 1981(1)(B) (including 18 U.S.C. §§ 1581-1592).

9. S. 47, 113th Cong. § 1211(a) (as passed by Senate, February 12, 2013).

10. FAR Subpart 22.17 and the clause at FAR 52.222-50.

11. Exec. Order No. 13627, 77 Fed. Reg. 60,029 (Oct. 2, 2012) (hereinafter "E.O. No. 13627" or the "Order"), available at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/DCPD-201200750/pdf/DCPD-201200750.pdf.

12. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013, H.R. Res. 4310, 113th Cong. (2013) (enacted).

13. 22 U.S.C. § 7104(g).

14. US Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor: A Toolkit for Responsible Businesses, http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/index.htm.

15. US Departmentof Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Reducing Child Labor & Forced Labor Toolkit: Basics of a Social Compliance System, Model of a Social Compliance System, http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/Basics-of-a-Social-Compliance-System.htm.

16. US Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Reducing Child Labor & Forced Labor Toolkit: Risk and Impact Information Gathering,http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/step2/step2_5.htm.

17. US Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor affairs, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, US Department of Labor's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, Forward, available at www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/ocft/2012TVPRA.pdf.

18. US Department of Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Reducing Child Labor & Forced Labor Toolkit: Risk and Impact Information Gathering, What Makes a Good Code of Conduct?, http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/step3/step3_1.htm.

19. The Dhaka Principles were developed by the Institute for Human Rights and Business in consultation with a range of stakeholders. They are based on the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Dhaka Principles for Migration with Dignity, http://www.dhaka-principles.org/.

20. Trafficking in Persons Report 2012, 20.

21. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations "Protect, Respect and Remedy" Framework (Guiding Principles), Commentary to Principle 17 (March 21, 2011), available at http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf.

22. FAR 52.222-50.

23. See Ending Trafficking in Government Contracting provisions of the Fiscal Year 2013 NDAA, H.R. Res. 4310 §§ 1704(a)(1), 1704(c)(1), 113th Cong. (2013) (enacted); E.O. No. 13627 § 2(a)(1)(C), 77 Fed. Reg. 60,029 (Oct. 2, 2012).

24. Department of Labor, Scheduling Audits, available at http://www.dol.gov/ilab/child-forced-labor/step5/step5_4.htm.

25. See Luxor Implementation Guidelines to the Athens Ethical Principles: Comprehensive Compliance Programme for Businesses available at unglobalimpact.org.

26. Guiding Principles, at 3.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions