This article examines some of the most commonly made amendments to the standard FIDIC Forms of Contract by both Employers/Owners and Contractors. For this purpose, we have considered FIDIC's Silver and Yellow Books since these design and build contracts are the most commonly used forms of FIDIC Contract for major infrastructure and energy projects and are the pre-eminent form used in the Middle East and Africa.
In no particular order, Employers often seek to amend these FIDIC Contracts in the following ways:
1. The Silver and Yellow Books are both relatively light on warranties from the Contractor. Employers will often replace Clause 4.1 in both Silver and Yellow Books with a bespoke set of warranties. Whilst both Silver and Yellow Books provide a fitness for purpose warranty from the Contractor, further provisions are often added providing a design standard (notwithstanding the fitness for purpose obligation), adding warranties in relation to the use of prohibited materials and that the Contractor has the requisite degree of skill, experience, capability and resources to execute the Works. A definition of "Prudent Industry Practices" is also commonly added.
2. FIDIC requires the provision of performance security (see Sub-Clause 4.2). Particularly in recent times, the performance security provisions have been heavily amended by Employers seeking to protect themselves against the instability of the banking and financial institutions which typically provide the performance security. Therefore, adding provisions that the institution providing the performance security has a particular rating (say from Moody's or Fitch or S&P) is increasingly common, as is adding related provisions as to what is to happen when there is a down rating of the particular financial institution which has provided the performance security
3. Employers will often look to amend the Silver Book to restrict sub-contracting, for example by providing that certain key equipment or materials are only provided from certain named sub-contractors. The Yellow Book envisages some advanced consent and permission being required for subcontractors. Employers also often wish to give final approval to the terms of sub-contracts and/or to be copied on each sub-contract as it is entered into and to require certain provisions to be included within sub-contracts (including, for example, the requirement that sub-contractors be novated or assigned to the Employer in the event of termination), or that key sub-contractors with design responsibility provide a collateral warranty to the Employer so that the Employer has a direct contractual link to (and remedy against) the most important sub-contractors.
4. Both Silver and Yellow Books have a short provision (Sub-Clause 4.6) on co-operation, but commonly in particularly large scale projects which may involve expansion of existing facilities or work at existing premises, or in instances where the project has been
For many Contractors, if they could make only one amendment to either of these FIDIC forms then it would be to Sub-Clause 20.1. . .
divided into a number of separate EPC Contracts, Employers prefer to include more extensive co-operation provisions providing that each Contractor must co ordinate and co-operate with other Contractors employed by the Employer. Such provisions are becoming increasingly elaborate in placing the onus (and risk) on the shoulders of a Contractor to co-ordinate its works with other related Contractors.
5. In all major construction projects, programming lies at the heart of a successful project. Although FIDIC (see Sub-Clause 8.3) contains reasonably extensive programming requirements, it is not unusual to see Sub-Clause 8.3 re-written or substantially amended to provide additional programming obligations on the part of the Contractor, including the requirement to provide electronic copies of the programme and to agree a baseline programme at the outset of the Contract with the Employer, which is required to be regularly updated as changes and other delays are encountered, to show a live critical path as the project progresses.
6. FIDIC Contracts, perhaps reflecting the contrasting positions under local laws, do not have any reference to decennial liability obligations which may be mandatory by reason of the local or governing law. It is, therefore, often advisable for the Employer to reflect that fact by including a provision (at the end of Clause 11) referencing the relevant part of the Civil Code and the Contractor's obligations in relation to decennial liability to avoid confusion.
We now turn to consider typical amendments that Contractors often seek to FIDIC's Silver and Yellow Books:
1. For many Contractors, if they could make only one amendment to either of these FIDIC forms then it would be to Sub-Clause 20.1 to delete the requirement that notice of claims must be given not later than 28 days after the Contractor becomes aware, or should have become aware, of the event or circumstance giving rise to the claim. Sub-Clause 20.1 is an absolute time bar, meaning that if the Contractor fails to give notice of a claim within that period then it will not be entitled to an extension of time or any additional payment. Whilst in some legal systems this might be regarded as unenforceable, many Tribunals do give effect to such a clause and the Contractor may lose significant rights and entitlements as a result if it is not complied with.
2. Both the Silver and Yellow Books have requirements that the Works, when completed, should be fit for the purposes for which they are intended, as defined in the Contract. Such fitness for purpose obligation may not be covered by a Contractor's professional indemnity insurance. Many Contractors will seek to avoid an obligation for fitness for purpose by deleting this reference in Sub-Clause 4.1, or, alternatively, at least seeking to define exactly what is meant by fitness for purpose within the context of the project. Although drafting meaningful fitness for purpose obligations is difficult, it can be preferable to a wide-ranging and unconfined obligation.
3. Clause 5.1 of FIDIC's Silver Book has a potentially onerous obligation on the Contractor making it responsible for the accuracy of the Employer's Requirements (including design criteria and calculations). This can mean that the Employer is not responsible for any error, inaccuracy or omission in the Employer's Requirements, which he or his consultant may have drafted. The key to the acceptability of such clause is usually the ability of the Contractor to verify the Employer's Requirements during the tender stage. If the tender period is short and there is not sufficient time to do so, Contractors are often reluctant to take on this potentially unlimited obligation, and even where there is such time, will seek to push back on such an obligation.
4. The remedies which the Employer has for failure to pass the Tests on Completion or to remedy defects, are potentially onerous for a Contractor. In Sub-Clauses 9.4(b) and 11.4(c) of both FIDIC
The remedies which the Employer has for failure to pass the Tests on Completion or to remedy defects, are potentially onerous for a Contractor.
Contracts, the Employer has the right to terminate the Contract or reject the Works, if the defect or failure to pass the test deprives the Employer "of substantially the whole benefit of the Works." In such circumstances, the Contractor may find itself having to repay all the sums which the Employer has paid for the Works. Whilst a notion of rejection or termination where there is a wholesale failure by the Contractor to provide what is required is not unusual, the difficulty with FIDIC's wording is that it is so general that disputes are inevitable over what is meant by depriving the Employer of "substantially the whole benefit of the Works." This is why amendments to this clause are usually sought by the Contractor (and sometimes the Employer) to specify exactly what will be deemed to deprive the Employer of substantially the whole benefit of the Works, or to delete the rejection regime altogether.
5. Towards the very top of the list of important issues for the Contractor in any EPC contract will be limitation of liability (Sub-Clause 17.6). FIDIC's limitation of liability clause is often left intact but Contractors do usually seek to limit their liability to less than the contract price (which is the FIDIC default position). Depending on factors such as location, industry, market conditions, size and complexity of the project, overall liability limits may range from as low as 20 percent of the contract price to 100 percent (or no limit at all). The leading Contractors will rarely accept to contract, however, without the exclusion of all indirect and consequential losses that Sub-Clause 17.6 in its unamended form provides.
6. Increasingly, Contractors are being more protective over their intellectual property rights (IPR). However, Sub-Clause 1.10 (Employer's Use of Contractor's Documents) can be a negotiation battleground as Employers seek a wide-ranging ability to use and recreate the Contractor's IPR and Contractors seek to restrict this as much as possible to ensure that Employers cannot (without paying) re-use the IPR on future projects. The existing wording does need amendment if a Contractor is to adequately protect its IPR. In fact, it is surprising that the protection of IPR, and the degree of sensitivity to this subject, varies markedly across different contracting organisations.
The FIDIC forms represent a very sound starting point for the preparation of an EPC contract for a major construction project. However, they are routinely heavily amended and this article has identified a snap-shot of some of the most common amendments from both Employer and Contractor perspectives. There are, however, plenty of other common amendments which could have been mentioned, including, for example, changes to the insurance and indemnity provisions, dispute resolution and confidentiality clauses.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.