UK: Tax and the 2010 General Election

Last Updated: 26 April 2010
Article by Smith & Williamson

Comparison of the main political parties' plans for Tax and Business

INTRODUCTION

The general election will be held on 6 May 2010.

This booklet summarises and reviews the declared policies of the three main political parties as they affect taxation and businesses, the objective being to inform clients, contacts and staff.

The Labour Government has pledged to halve the current annual deficit in four years and an important issue for the immediate future is how and when to reduce Government spending. However it seems inevitable that whichever party wins power there will have to be substantial tax rises in the term of the next Government and our key predictions are therefore:

  • an increase in the 18% rate of CGT bearing in mind the increased differential with a 50% top rate of income tax;
  • the 50% top rate to stay in place for the foreseeable future;
  • VAT to go up and, bearing in mind that the European average is 19.8%, the UK rate could well increase to 20%;
  • the crack-down on avoidance and evasion to continue.

1. GENERAL TAX POLICY

1.1. Conservatives

  • Cut wasteful Whitehall spending rather than increase taxes.
  • Create the most competitive tax system in G20 within five years, restoring simplicity, stability and predictability. Set out a five year road map for corporate tax reform to provide greater certainty and stability for business. Introduce an Office of Tax Simplification to suggest reforms to the tax system.
  • Reduction in corporation tax rates to be funded by reductions in capital allowances and scrapping complex reliefs.
  • Pay freeze for one year for public sector workers other than the one million lowest paid.

1.2. Labour

  • Create an enterprise environment that gives active support to those who wish to start their own business.
  • Make further progress in cutting the costs of regulation on growing businesses, especially the smallest, with a new goal to cut the cost of regulation by a further £6.5 billion by 2015 (£1.5 billion in unnecessary paperwork and record-keeping, and £5 billion in the wider regulatory costs that impact upon business).
  • Take steps to cut the budget deficit with 60% of tax rises being paid for by the top 5 per cent of earners. Plan to halve the deficit in four years through fair tax increases, firm grip on public spending, strategies for growth and reduced spending on benefits.
  • Increase all NI rates by 1% from 6/4/11. Considered to be fairer than increasing VAT.
  • No increases in income tax rates in next Parliament and no extension of VAT to food, children's clothes, books, newspapers and public transport fares. Will maintain tax credits.
  • Cap public sector pay rises at 1% for two years. Reforms to public sector pensions.

1.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Rebalance the tax system by cutting taxes for people on low and middle incomes, paid for by cutting reliefs and closing tax loopholes that benefit the wealthiest and increasing taxes on aviation.
  • Tackle tax avoidance and evasion.
  • Achieve £14 billion of potential savings including scrapping the Child Trust Fund, regional development agencies and various defence procurements. Set a pay rise cap of £400 for public sector workers for two years, restrict tax credits, end Government payments into child trust funds, and introduce a banking levy.

2. INCOME TAX

2.1. Conservatives

  • Charge a flat-rate levy on UK residents of foreign origin who are tax-domiciled offshore, to pay for increase in IHT nil rate band.
  • Abolish income tax on all savings income for everyone on the basic rate of tax with top rate taxpayers continuing to pay the same as they currently do.
  • Raise the tax allowance for pensioners by £2,000.
  • Transferable personal allowance for married couples which will only benefit basic rate taxpayers.
  • 50% top rate to stay as long as the public sector pay freeze is operational.
  • Will restore tax reliefs previously available through the furnished holiday lettings regime.

2.2. Labour

  • No increases in the basic, higher or top rates of income tax in next Parliament. The new 50% top rate to remain in place for the whole term of the next Parliament.
  • Remove the furnished holiday lettings rules that treat such businesses as a trade rather than property businesses.

2.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Raise the threshold at which people start paying income tax from current levels to £10,000, cutting the average working age person's income tax bill by £700 pa and cutting pensioners' income tax bills by £100 pa. These plans will mean that almost four million people on low incomes would no longer have to pay any income tax at all. This proposal has been costed at £16.7 billion, to be paid for by reforming CGT, restricting tax relief on pension contributions, the mansion tax, switching from Air Passenger Duty to a per plane tax and anti-avoidance measures.
  • Close tax loopholes and cut reliefs that benefit the wealthiest.
  • Restrict tax relief on pension contributions to the basic rate, so that those on high incomes do not benefit disproportionately.
  • Reform the system of taxing non-domiciled individuals so that after seven years they will become subject to UK tax on all offshore income.

3. NATIONAL INSURANCE CONTRIBUTIONS

3.1. Conservatives

  • Any new business started in the first two years of a Conservative Government to pay no Employer National Insurance on the first ten employees it hired during its first year.
  • Would reduce the impact of the proposed 1% National Insurance rise in April 2011 by increasing the employee's earnings threshold (before they start to pay National Insurance) by £24 per week and the upper earnings limit (after which the upper NI rate is due – currently 1% but 2% from April 2011) by £29 per week. The earnings threshold before employers' contributions commence will also be increased by £21 per week. This is initially projected to cost £5.6 billion, falling to £4.3 billion as wages rise. [The PBR08 document indicated the 0.5% increase in NI rates would raise £5.39 billion in 2011/12, while PBR09 indicated the further 0.5% increase in NI rate would raise an additional £4.64 billion. Thus the Conservative's latest position on the NI increase would reduce the revenue raised from this measure from just over £10 billion to £4.43 billion, to be funded by £12 billion a year efficiency saving measures to be implemented across Whitehall.]

3.2. Labour

  • All NIC rates to increase by 1% with effect from 6 April 2011.

3.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Combat leakage of National Insurance contributions by changing the taxation of benefits-in-kind, such as private health insurance, leading to a fairer basis of pay.
  • Reverse the proposed increase in NIC as soon as resources allow.

4. CORPORATION TAX

4.1. Conservatives

  • Headline rate of Corporation Tax to be reduced from 28p to 25p as a first step to lower business taxes, funded by a reduction in complex allowances.
  • Small companies' rate of Corporation Tax to be cut from 21p to 20p, paid for by removing complex new investment allowances.
  • Research and development tax credits to be improved and refocused on hi-tech companies, small businesses and new start-ups.
  • Set out a five year road map for corporate tax reform to provide greater certainty and stability for business.
  • Simplify the Controlled Foreign company rules.
  • Consult on a territorial corporate tax system that only taxes profits generated in UK.
  • Create an attractive tax environment for intellectual property.

4.2. Labour

  • Have maintained the 21p small company rate for the corporation tax year beginning 1 April 2010.
  • Will provide incentives for companies to invest through research and development tax credits.
  • Protect and increase capital allowances that help key sectors such as manufacturing.
  • Develop the patent-box (a lower rate of corporate tax to encourage UK based innovation).
  • Have a stated aim to "make the UK the best country in the G20 in which to set up and run a business, and become one of the most attractive places in the world to invest".

4.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Cut the rate of corporation tax to be funded through the removal of complex reliefs.
  • Allow small businesses to choose to be taxed on cash flow. This would aid growing businesses who make accounting profits but reinvest their cash flow.
  • Reform research and development tax credits to ensure that resources are targeted to encourage innovation.
  • Introduce a new general anti-avoidance provision for corporation tax, to stop companies structuring their business in a particular way to reduce their tax bill.

5. VAT

5.1. Introduction

None of the parties has a firm commitment on VAT policy. The view that VAT would be a strong contender for tax rises, whichever party wins the election, is partly based on data showing that Britain has one of the lowest VAT rates in Europe. Official documents have revealed that the Treasury considered announcing a VAT increase to 18.5 per cent in 2011-12 in the 2008 pre-Budget report (per FT 22 March 2010).

Policy Exchange, viewed as one of Tory leader David Cameron's favourite think-tanks, said modelling and academic research showed the idea established in the 1970s and 1980s that VAT was less damaging than income tax was no longer valid. "We found that, contrary to what is widely assumed amongst journalists and politicians, increasing VAT would be more damaging to economic growth than increases in the basic rate of income tax," the report concluded. This effect was so clear that politicians should consider restructuring taxes by raising the basic rate of income tax and cutting VAT, it said (per FT 22 March 2010).

5.2. Conservatives

5.3. Labour

  • No extension of VAT to food, children's clothes, books, newspapers and public transport fares.

5.4. Liberal Democrats

  • Do not propose to raise VAT (Nick Clegg 8/4/10)

6. CAPITAL GAINS TAX

6.1. Conservatives

  • The Conservatives have said they are in "listening mode" about whether future reforms to CGT would make sense (FT 15 March 2010).

6.2. Labour

  • To encourage entrepreneurship Labour has doubled the value of capital gains that can be made under Entrepreneurs' Relief for lifetime gains to £2m (giving an effective CGT rate of 10% on such gains). This will cover cumulative gains and the new limit came into force on 6 April 2010.
  • Mr Darling acknowledged that the Treasury will, at some point, have to close the gap between the 18% flat rate of CGT and the new top rate of income tax of 50%, which he knows is being used by the wealthy to cut their tax bills (FT 15 March 2010).

6.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Align capital gains tax to income tax rates to prevent people from having an incentive to present their income as capital to pay a lower rate of taxation. Will reduce the annual exemption of capital gains tax, from £10,100 to £2,000, to stop this allowance being used for tax planning.
  • Those who use second homes as speculative investments to pay income tax rates rather than the CGT rate.
  • Introduce a levy of 1% on the value of properties worth over £2m.

7. INHERITANCE TAX

7.1. Conservatives

  • Raise the Inheritance Tax (IHT) threshold to £1 million.

7.2. Labour

  • Maintain the IHT nil rate band at £325,000 until 2014/15.

7.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Have indicated that they are not in favour of raising the nil rate threshold.

8. TAX CREDITS AND CHILD TRUST FUNDS

8.1. Conservatives

  • Stop new spending on Child Trust Funds for better-off families. However, disabled children and the poorest one third of families to continue receiving both new Child Trust Funds at birth and top-up payments.
  • Stop paying Child Tax Credits to those earning over £50,000.
  • Reform administration of the tax credits system.

8.2. Labour

  • Will maintain tax credits.
  • Additional support through tax credits will be targeted at children, with additional support through the child element of the Child Tax Credit of £4 per week for families with children aged 1 and 2 years old from April 2012 (Toddler tax credit). From April 2010, there will be additional annual payments of £100 into the Child Trust Fund accounts of disabled children. Severely disabled children will receive £200.

8.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Scrap the "Child Trust Funds" or restrict tax credits.

9. BUSINESS

9.1. Conservatives

  • Any new business started in the first two years of a Conservative Government to pay no Employer National Insurance on the first ten employees it hires during its first year. The tax break will encourage new entrepreneurs and is predicted to generate around 60,000 additional jobs over two years.
  • Want to reform the system of taxing the self-employed (Mark Prisk quoted in the Sunday Telegraph).
  • Will review IR35 (Mark Prisk quoted in Daily Telegraph).

9.2. Labour

  • Cut business rates for eligible small businesses occupying properties with rateable values of up to £6,000 to nil for one year from October, with reductions for those occupying properties with rateable values of up to £12,000.
  • Support small businesses. Continue the Time to Pay scheme for deferring payment of tax.
  • Make further progress in cutting the costs of regulation on growing businesses, especially the smallest. with a new goal to cut the cost of regulation by a further £6.5 billion by 2015 (£1.5 billion in unnecessary paperwork and record-keeping, and £5 billion in the wider regulatory costs that impact upon business).
  • Retain the Annual Investment Allowance of £100,000 for the next Parliament and index-link the allowance.

9.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Cut red tape to ease the burden on smaller businesses.
  • Cut business rates for smaller businesses and base rates on site values, rather than total rental value, which penalises businesses that invest in improving their premises.
  • Make it easier to contract with government so that smaller firms are not disadvantaged.
  • Encourage the creation of Local Enterprise Funds to connect local private investors with local entrepreneurs.
  • Reform Regional Development Agencies to devolve power to local authorities and focus support on where it is most needed.
  • Overhaul competition powers to reduce the power of monopoly organisations both nationally and locally and to encourage innovative businesses to thrive.

10. STAMP DUTY

10.1. Conservatives

  • Take nine out of ten first time buyers out of Stamp Duty altogether.

10.2. Labour

  • Reduced the rate of SDLT for first time buyers for properties with a value up to £250,000 to nil for two years.
  • Raise the rate of SDLT on residential properties to 5% for properties with a value exceeding £1m.

10.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Make sure wealthy individuals and businesses cannot avoid paying stamp duty land tax, as they do at present by setting up an offshore structure.

11. GREEN TAXES

11.1. Conservatives

  • Transform our electricity networks with 'smart grid' and 'smart meter' technology that automatically matches supply and demand, allowing a huge increase in renewable power.
  • Create a decentralised energy revolution by introducing a system of feed-in tariffs to encourage micro-generation of electricity.
  • Expand offshore wind and marine power and provide government backing for a network of large-scale Marine Energy Parks.
  • Accelerate the demonstration of carbon capture and storage technology, in which Britain should have a leading position but is being overtaken by other countries that lack the skills, research, industrial and geographical advantages that we enjoy.
  • Give energy companies incentives to build a national recharging network for electric cars.
  • Give every household an entitlement of up to £6,500 worth of energy efficiency investments, financed by energy providers and paid for from part of the resulting savings in energy bills.
  • Increase the proportion of tax revenues accounted for by environmental taxes, but any additional revenues from new green taxes that are principally designed to change behaviour will be used to reduce the burden of taxation elsewhere.
  • Reform the ineffectual Climate Change Levy so that it is more closely linked to carbon emissions in order to provide the right incentives for investment in low carbon technologies.

11.2. Labour

  • As firms invest in insulating people's homes, renewable energy and nuclear power, and in new technologies such as electric vehicles, we will create around 400,000 new green jobs by 2015 – making 1.2 million British jobs in the environmental and low carbon sectors in all.
  • The Labour party intends to opt nitrous oxide gases from nitric acid production into the EU Emission Trading System from 2011.
  • From 1 April 2011 the climate change levy (CCL) discount available to energy intensive sectors participating in the climate change agreements (CCA) scheme will reduce from 80% to 65% across all taxable commodities. CCL rates will increase in line with inflation in 2011-12.
  • On 1 April 2010, the main fuel duty rate will increase by one penny per litre. It will then rise by a further one penny per litre on 1 October 2010 and by 0.76 pence per litre on 1 January 2011. Fuel duty will rise by one penny per litre in real terms in April 2014.

11.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Replace air passenger duty with a per-plane tax, thereby taxing air freight and also providing an incentive for airlines to fill seats and discourage them from running empty flights.
  • Introduce a levy on domestic flights to discourage travellers from choosing air travel over land for journeys which would take less than six hours by rail.
  • Require energy companies to simplify the complicated tangle of different tariffs. Roll out smart meters to all households within five years and insulate all of Britain's homes to a decent standard within 10 years.
  • With respect to rural communities, provide more homes for local people by increasing councils' powers over second homes and promoting schemes for affordable homes.
  • Deliver broadband coverage and quality in rural areas.
  • Invest up to £400 million in refurbishing shipyards in the North of England and Scotland so that they can manufacture offshore wind turbines and other marine renewable energy equipment.
  • Launching an 'Eco Cash-Back' scheme, for one year only, which will contribute £400 towards the installation of double glazing, replacement of an old boiler, or installation of micro-generation.
  • Investing £140 million in a bus scrappage scheme.
  • Begin a ten-year programme of home insulation, offering a home energy improvement package of up to £10,000 per home, paid for by the savings from lower energy bills, and make sure every new home is fully energy-efficient by improving building regulations.
  • Improve energy efficiency in the commercial and public sectors, by strengthening the Carbon Reduction Commitment Energy Efficiency Scheme.
  • Boost investment in clean energy by reforming the EU emissions trading scheme.

12. COUNCIL TAX

12.1. Conservatives

  • Freeze council tax for two years.
  • Scrap plans for a council tax revaluation.

12.2. Liberal Democrats

  • Give local authorities power to set higher rates for second homes.

13. PENSIONS

13.1. Conservatives

  • When resources allow start to reverse the effects of the abolition of the dividend tax credit for pension funds.
  • Raising state pension age sooner than planned.
  • Restore the link between Basic State Pension and average earnings.
  • End the obligation to buy an annuity at age 75.

13.2. Labour

  • Re-link the basic state pension to earnings in 2012 and conduct a review of the retirement age.
  • Pension credit to rise in line with earnings.
  • Support 10m people to build up savings through occupational pensions and personal pension accounts.
  • Retirement age to increase to 68 between 2024 and 2046.

13.3. Liberal Democrats

  • Restore the link between annual increases in the Basic State Pension and increases in average earnings immediately.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.