UK: Security Assignments – Not Always What They Say They Are?

Last Updated: 8 December 2015
Article by Charlotte Drake

The nature of security created under a security document does not always match its description in the document. Charlotte Drake explains how this recharacterisation risk can apply to security assignments. 

Is an "absolute" security assignment legal or equitable?

Legal assignments – key requirements

Lenders commonly take security over "choses in action" (such as debts or rights under contracts) by way of assignment. An assignment involves the transfer of either legal ownership (legal assignment) or equitable ownership (equitable assignment).

Section 136 of the Law of Property Act 1925 dictates the formalities for taking a legal assignment. It requires that a legal assignment must (among other things):

  • be in writing;
  • be executed by the assignor; 
  • be "absolute";
  • not be expressed to be "by way of charge" only; and
  • be notified in writing to the person against whom the assignor could enforce the assigned rights (the third party).

Legal assignments by way of security

There has been much case law on what "absolute" means. An assignment will not be absolute if it is conditional, or of part of a debt. However, a security assignment can qualify (provided it is not "by way of charge"): the fact the assignor has an equity of redemption under a security assignment does not of itself prevent the assignment from being "absolute". Security assignments sometimes use the term "absolute" to make clear they are intended to be legal assignments. However, the terminology used is not decisive. An assignment will not be "absolute" unless the third party can then deal with the assignee alone in respect of the assigned rights. The assignee owes an obligation to the assignor to reassign the rights on discharge of the secured liability. But the third party can continue to deal with the assignee until it receives notice of that reassignment.

In practice, this usually presents a considerable stumbling block to taking security by way of a legal assignment. Security assignments often allow the assignor to continue to deal with the third party, which commercially suits assignor, assignee and third party alike. However, such an assignment will not be "absolute" and so will take effect in equity only, even if the security document claims to effect a legal assignment.

The recent case of Ardila Investments NV v. ENRC NV and another1 highlighted this. The judge accepted that the assignment clause in the document used "the words of a legal assignment". However, he pointed to other clauses in the assignment document which suggested the parties had intended it to take effect in equity rather than law. One of these clauses obliged the assignor to "pursue its rights" under the assigned contracts, which is clearly inconsistent with an absolute assignment.

Legal or equitable – does it matter?

Often not. A notified equitable assignment has as strong a priority against other interests in the assigned rights as a legal assignment.

One advantage of a legal assignment is that a legal assignee can sue the third party without the assignor's involvement. Received wisdom used to be that an equitable assignee could not sue alone and the assignor (as owner of the legal interest) must be joined in as party to proceedings (either as co-plaintiff if willing, or as co-defendant if not).

In Ardila the judge held that the assignment took effect in equity and that both assignor and assignee should join in the proceedings as co-claimants. As it happened, when the hearing took place, the assignor had been joined as co-claimant anyway. In other cases, an equitable assignee has been able to sue the third party alone. As a purely practical matter, even if the assignor does need to be joined into proceedings this is unlikely to be more than an inconvenience.

Could a security assignment be "floating" security?

Could there be another, more unpalatable, result of control remaining with the assignor following a security assignment? In Re Spectrum Plus2 , the House of Lords of course held that a charge over a debt will be floating, not fixed, if the security holder fails to exercise control over the debt proceeds. Is a security assignment of a debt or similar contractual right also at risk of being recharacterised in this way? This is far from a settled point, but these obiter comments from Lord Scott in Re Spectrum Plus (at paragraph 107) suggest so: 

"Suppose, for example, a case where an express assignment of a specific debt by way of security were accompanied by a provision that reserved to the assignor the right, terminable by written notice from the assignee, to collect the debt and to use the proceeds for its (the assignor's) business purposes, ie, a right, terminable on notice, for the assignor to withdraw the proceeds of the debt from the security. This security would, in my opinion, be a floating security notwithstanding the express assignment.

There is some logic in this approach. If it were possible to "solve" Re Spectrum Plus by renaming all charges over debts as security assignments, the case would not have taken on the significance that it has. The risk of this type of recharacterisation is most obvious in a UK insolvency, where there is a clear distinction between the application of fixed and floating recoveries. In this context, at least, the "fixed/floating" distinction is likely to be more of a concern to a lender than whether its security assignment is "legal" rather than "equitable".


1. [2015] EWHC 1667 (Comm) (11 June 2015)

2. [2005] UKHL 41.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Events from this Firm
28 Sep 2017, Seminar, London, UK

On 26 July the FCA published its long-expected consultation paper on the extension of the SMCR to all FCA-authorised firms. The so-called "core regime" introduces the key concepts of regulator-approved senior managers, firm-approved certification staff and conduct rules applicable to virtually all staff.

3 Oct 2017, Conference, Zurich, Switzerland

As the founding Partner of the Europe-Iran Forum, Dentons Europe will once again support this year’s event. This compelling event which explores all Iran-related topics will take place in Zürich on 3rd and 4th October.

4 Oct 2017, Workshop, London, UK

We are hosting an interactive workshop where we will run a mock High Court trial of an employee competition case – where the members of the audience are the judges. The session, aimed at in-house counsel and HR professionals, will offer an insight as to how disputes involving employees moving to a competitor play out in practice.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.