UK: È Ancora Vigente E Viene Applicato L'art. 62?

Com'è noto, l'art. 62 del Decreto Liberalizzazioni (D.L. 1/2012) detta una disciplina speciale in tema di cessione dei prodotti agricoli ed agroalimentari che sinteticamente:

  • stabilisce una serie di requisiti formali e sostanziali per i relativi contratti;
  • vieta le pratiche commerciali sleali;
  • fissa inderogabili termini di pagamento (30 giorni per i prodotti deteriorabili e 60 per gli altri prodotti) e tassi d'interesse moratori (interesse ex D.Lgs. 231/2002 aumentato di due punti percentuali);
  • in caso di violazione, prevede pesanti sanzioni amministrative (sino a € 500.000), la cui applicazione è demandata all'Autorità garante per la concorrenza e il mercato ('AGCM').

Tale norma è stata da subito criticata per l'inderogabilità delle previsioni sui pagamenti e per le pesanti sanzioni amministrative.

Successivamente, si è discusso – anche a livello ministeriale – se l'art. 62 fosse stato implicitamente abrogato dalla novella apportata alla disciplina generale sul ritardo nei pagamenti (D.Lgs. 231/2002), in attuazione della normativa europea in materia (Dir. 2011/7/UE). Infatti, tale novella, contrariamente all'art. 62, consente che i termini legali di pagamento e gli interessi moratori legali possano essere derogati dalle parti e non prevede sanzioni amministrative a carico dei contravventori. Nell'incertezza, molti operatori, hanno deciso di adeguarsi all'art. 62 o hanno comunque dovuto adeguarvisi per poter accedere al credito bancario ovvero alle assicurazioni del credito.

Tuttavia, l'apparato sanzionatorio previsto dall'art. 62 non pare aver avuto applicazione in concreto. L'AGCM, infatti, chiamata ad applicare le suddette sanzioni, si sarebbe astenuta dal farlo e, in data 08.05.2013, ha chiesto al Consiglio di Stato un parere sulla effettiva vigenza della norma. Nel gioco dei rimpalli che ha segnato le sorti dell'art. 62, il Consiglio di Stato, a sua volta, ha espresso la necessità di avere i pareri della Presidenza del Consiglio e del Ministero dell'economia delle finanze, che ad oggi non sono ancora stati resi . Allo stato attuale, quindi, nemmeno l'autorità chiamata ad applicare l'art. 62 pare aver risposte certe sull'efficacia della norma.

Da ultimo, in occasione del DDL per la Competitività del settore agricolo, l'art. 62 è stato oggetto di alcune proposte di emendamento. Un primo emendamento, poi ritirato, prevedeva - all'evidente fine di superare i rigidi termini di pagamento di cui sopra - che il Ministero delle politiche agricole economiche e forestali ('MPAAF') dovesse emanare un 'decreto contenente, per ciascuna tipologia di merce, garantendo il rispetto della normativa europea in materia, i termini entro cui doveva essere pagato il corrispettivo'. Un secondo emendamento, ora al vaglio della competente Commissione al Senato, prevedrebbe di escludere dal campo di applicazione dei termini di pagamento e degli interessi moratori ex art. 62 le cessioni di prodotti effettuati dalle imprese agricole.

Tale proposta di emendamento impone di fare una riflessione su quale sia il corretto campo di applicazione dell'art. 62 alla luce della sua ratio che, secondo quanto dichiarato dal MPAAF, è quella '...di aumentare la trasparenza e l'efficienza nei rapporti di filiera, eliminare i comportamenti scorretti e speculativi, tutelare maggiormente gli operatori, migliorare la gestione finanziaria dei rapporti'. Lo scopo dell'art. 62 sarebbe, infatti, quello di tutelare i produttori dagli abusi di forza contrattuale perpetrati dalla Grande Distribuzione Organizzata ('GDO'), la quale, mentre incassa immediatamente i propri corrispettivi dal consumatore finale, impone ai propri fornitori tempi di pagamento estremamente lunghi, costringendoli così a tensioni finanziarie intollerabili.

E sebbene sia condivisibile che l'inderogabilità dei termini di pagamento imposta dall'art. 62 vada a contenere l'illegittimo sbilanciamento delle pratiche negoziali a favore della GDO, non si comprende per quale ragione tale norma debba essere estesa a tutte le transazioni all'interno della filiera agroalimentare, ivi comprese quelle relative alla trasformazione dei prodotti, rispetto alle quali la GDO non è parte.

Nonostante le proposte di ricondurre il dettato della norma nell'alveo dei principi generali della derogabilità dei termini di pagamento, ad oggi permangono tutti dubbi sulla vigenza della norma e sull'opportunità della sua applicazione.

In attesa di conoscere il parere del Consiglio di Stato, si auspica l'intervento del Legislatore in tal senso.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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