Turkey: Aile Konutu Hakkında Bilmeniz Gerekenler

Aile Konutu Nedir ve Neden Korunmalıdır?

Eşlerin müşterek bir şekilde yaşam faaliyetlerini gerçekleştirdikleri, düzenli bir biçimde ikamet ettikleri mekan "aile konutu" olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Eşlerin birlikte yaşamlarını sürdürdükleri ortak mekan üzerinde, hak sahibi olan eşin yapması muhtemel kötüniyetli işlemlere karşı çocukları ve diğer eşi korumak adına aile konutu kavramı önemli bir müessesedir.

Aile Konutunu Düzenleyen 4721 Sayılı Türk Medeni Kanunu'nun ("TMK") 194. maddesi Çerçevesinde Haklarınız Nelerdir?

  • Aile konutu kiralanan bir taşınmaz ise ve eşlerden biri kira sözleşmesini feshetmek isterse diğer eşin de rızasını almak zorundadır.
  • Aile konutu kiralanan bir taşınmaz ise, kira sözleşmesinin feshini isteyen eşinize rıza vermemeniz halinde, eşiniz hakime başvurarak konuya müdahale etmesini isteyebilir.
  • Aile konutu kiralanan bir taşınmaz ise, kira sözleşmesini eşlerden yalnızca biri yapmış olsa dahi diğer eş de ev sahibine bildirimde bulunarak aile konutu olarak kullanılan evin kira sözleşmesine taraf olabilecektir.
  • Aile konutu olarak yaşanılan taşınmazın mülkiyeti eşlerden yalnızca birine ait olsa dahi, malik olmayan eş Tapu Sicil Müdürlüğü'ne başvurarak tapu siciline "aile konutu şerhi" koydurabilir.

Birden Fazla Aile Konutu Olabilir mi?

Eşlerin birlikte oturdukları birden fazla konut olsa bile bunlardan sadece bir tanesi aile konutu olarak kabul edilir. Tarafların birlikte oturdukları yazlık ev, yayla evi, dağ evi gibi ikincil nitelikteki konutlar aile konutu olarak kabul edilmemektedir. Keza Yargıtay Hukuk Genel Kurulu'nun 2011/2-447 Esas ve 2011/556 Karar sayılı 28.9.2011 tarihli ilamında da; "...TMK'nın >194. maddesi ile ailenin oturduğu veya kullandığı herhangi bir konutun değil, aile için yaşam merkezi olan, kaybedildiğinde aile birliğinin maddî ve manevi yönden sarsılacağı, ailenin ve diğer eşin barınma hakkını kaybedeceği konutun korunmasının amaçlandığı" belirtilmiştir.

Aile Konutu Şerhi Neden Önemlidir?

Tapu siciline aile konutu şerhi koydurulmasının amacı, aile konutunun maliki olmayan çocukların ve eşin korunmasıdır. Açıklayıcı nitelikte olan bu şerh ile "tapu sicilinde; taşınmazı satın almak isteyen 3. kişilere, bu taşınmazın aile konutu olduğunu ve rızanız olmadan satılamayacağını" bildirmiş olursunuz. Taşınmaz üzerine aile konutu şerhinin işlenmesi halinde; tapu sicili nezdindeki işlemler eşlerin ikisinin de rızası olmadığı sürece yapılamayacaktır.

Aile Konutu Şerhi Konulmasını Nereden Talep Edebilirim?

Yargıtay Hukuk Genel Kurulu, taşınmazın maliki olmayan eşin aile konutu şerhinin verilmesini talep edebilmesi için bir mahkeme kararına veya hak sahibi eşin söz konusu işleme izin vermesine gerek olmadığına, zira TMK'nın 194/3. maddesinin açık hükmü ile taşınmazın maliki olmayan eşe bu hakkın tanındığı ve dolayısıyla aile konutu şerhinin verilmesinin Tapu Sicil Müdürlüğü'nden isteneceğine, hükmetmiştir (Yargıtay Hukuk Genel Kurulu 2011/2-447 E. ve 2011/556 K. 28.9.2011 T.)


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