Turkey: Yönetim Kurulu Üyelerinin Toplantılar Dışında Bilgi Alma İmkânı

Şirketi en iyi şekilde yönetmekle görevli olan yönetim kurulu üyelerinin, bu görevleri kapsamında şirkete karşı çeşitli hak ve yükümlülükleri bulunuyor. Bu kapsamda, yönetim kurulu üyelerinin bilgi alma ve inceleme hakkı da hem üyelere tanınmış bir hak hem de şirketin en iyi şekilde yönetilmesi için üyelere getirilen bir yükümlülük. Yönetim kurulu üyelerinin bireysel bilgi alma ve inceleme hakkı, mevcut durumda eski Türk Ticaret Kanunu dönemine kıyasla daha ayrıntılı olarak düzenleniyor.

Mevcut düzenlemeye göre, yönetim kurulu toplantıları esnasında her yönetim kurulu üyesi, herhangi bir sınırlamaya tabi olmaksızın, şirketin tüm iş ve işlemleri hakkında bilgi isteyebilir, soru sorup, inceleme yapabilir. Üyelerin herhangi bir defter, sözleşme, yazışma veya belge talebi; bu belgelerin kurulda incelenmesi talebi ya da herhangi bir konu ile ilgili şirket yöneticilerinden bilgi alınması talebi reddedilemez. Bilgi talebi sadece şirket yönetiminde görev alan diğer yönetim kurulu üyeleri veya başkanı ya da yetki devri ile şirketin yönetimi ile ilgili çeşitli konularda yetkilendirilmiş olan genel müdür, müdür gibi yöneticilere yönlendirilebilir.

Yönetim kurulu üyelerinin toplantı dışında bilgi alma hakkı ise, Türk Ticaret Kanunu'na göre ancak belirli şartlarda mümkün. Yönetim kurulu üyeleri, ancak yönetim kurulu başkanının izni ile, şirket yönetimiyle görevlendirilen kişilerden, işlerin genel gidişi ve münferit işler hakkında bilgi alabilir. Şirket defterlerinin ve dosyalarının incelemesine sunulmasını isteyebilmesi için ise yönetim kurulu başkanının iznini alma şartının yanı sıra, bu talebin söz konusu üyenin görevini yerine getirmesi için gerekli olması gerekiyor.

Yönetim kurulu başkanına iletilecek olan toplantı dışında bilgi alma talebi, herhangi bir şekil şartına tabi değil. Yönetim kurulu başkanı kendisine iletilen talebi keyfi olarak reddedemez. Bu talep ancak orantılılık ve eşitlik ilkeleri çerçevesinde maddi sebeplerle reddedilebilir. Örneğin, yönetim kurulu başkanı, bu bilginin şirketin işleriyle ilgili olmadığı ya da yönetim kurulu üyesinin görevini yerine getirebilmesi için gerekli bir bilgi olmadığı gerekçeleri ile bilgi alma ve şirket defter ve dosyalarının incelenmesi talebini reddedebilir. Yönetim kurulu başkanının talebi reddetmesi halinde, konu iki gün içinde yönetim kuruluna getirilir. Kurulun toplanmaması veya toplanarak istemi reddetmesi halinde, inceleme ve bilgi talebinde bulunan üye, şirketin merkezinin bulunduğu yerdeki asliye ticaret mahkemesine başvurabilir. Yönetim kurulu toplantıları dışında bilgi alma hakkındaki üyelere yönelik sınırlama, yönetim kurulu başkanı için de geçerli.

İlgili maddede yönetim kurulu üyelerinin gerek toplantı esnasındaki gerek toplantı dışındaki bilgi alma haklarının kısıtlanamayacağı ve kaldırılamayacağı açıkça düzenleniyor. Bu hakkın kapsamı, esas sözleşmede yapılacak düzenlemeler ya da yönetim kurulu kararı ile genişletebilir.

Şirketlerde yönetim kurulu toplantılarının çok sık yapılmadığı gerçeği ve toplantıların lojistik zorlukları göz önüne alındığında, yönetim kurulu üyelerinin toplantı dışında bilgi talep etmeleri şirketin işlerini takip edebilmeleri ve görevlerini en iyi şekilde yerine getirebilmelerinin önemli bir aracı oluyor. Toplantı dışında bilgi alma hakkı, her ne kadar kanun tarafından belli ölçüde kısıtlanmışsa da esas sözleşmede yapılacak düzenlemeler veya yönetim kurulu kararı ile kabul edilecek olan prensipler çerçevesinde şirketler tarafından genişletilmesi mümkün. Bu kapsamda, söz konusu hakkın şirketler tarafından genişletilmesi ve şirket iç yönergeleri ve raporlama düzenlemeleri ile tüm yönetim kurulu üyelerine eşit şartlarda, toplantı dışında da bilgi alma ve inceleme hakkının geniş olarak tanınması şirketin etkin yönetimi açısından yerinde bir uygulama olacaktır.

Bu makale 14 Mayıs 2018 tarihinde Dünya Gazetesi'nde yayınlanmıştır.

© Kolcuoğlu Demirkan Koçaklı Attorneys at Law 2017

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