Transparency International released
Corruption Perceptions Index ("CPI") on 27
January 2015 in Berlin. Established in 1995, the CPI has become one
of the most widely recognized indicators of corruption worldwide.
Denmark took the top spot in 2015 for the second year running, with
Finland and Sweden also performing well. North Korea and Somalia
are the worst performers in 2015. Turkey's ranking declined in
2015. During the 2015 announcement, Transparency International
noted that "Not one single country, anywhere in the world,
2015 sees Turkey's CPI performance continue to decline.
Turkey drops three points compared to 2014, scoring 42 out of 100.
The drop translates to a decline in Turkey's overall ranking
from 64th in 2014, to 66th in 2015. According to Transparency
International, Turkey's decline reflects an adverse and
unfavorable deterioration of the reforms which were previously
noted as improvements over the last few years. With this score, the
gap between EU states and Turkey increases.
Turkey is identified among the big decliners since 2012,
together with Libya, Australia, Brazil and Spain. Transparency
International notes the deteriorating perception of public sector
corruption in Turkey, along with a number of other European states,
as "very worrying", with further emphasis placed on
shrinking civil society space and free media.
Transparency International voiced concerns about low
implementation levels in European states, despite collectively
having an average score of 67, which is the highest average among
the six regions identified in the report. Key elements to improve
corruption perceptions globally are financial sector reform,
increases in enforcement levels, media freedom, as well as civil
On another note, despite the Nordic presence at the top of
2015's rankings, Transparency International noted concerns
about four big corruption cases in Eurasian markets, involving
companies from these otherwise top performing countries.
Key points from the 2015 CPI announcement include:
Global average CPI score of 43.
Two out of every three countries worldwide score below 50.
53% of G20 countries score less than 50.
100% of BRIC countries score less than 50.
The CPI ranks 168 participating countries/territories based on
how corrupt a country's public sector is perceived to be. The
rankings are based on a combination of corruption surveys and
assessments, collected by a variety of reputable institutions. The
scores are given on a scale from 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very
clean). Highly regarded economic studies reflect a correlation
between a country's CPI scores and long-term economic growth,
as well as a link between CPI scores and dependence of foreign
The index is not based on hard empirical hard data, but rather
aims to capture perceptions of public sector corruption across 168
countries. By the nature of corruption, the number of prosecutions
brought in a country against corruption or the number of reported
bribes themselves are not reliable methods to identify all possible
deliberately hidden illegal corrupt activities.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.
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On April 5th, 2016, the Department of Justice ("DOJ") announced the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Enforcement Plan and Guidance ("Guidance") which aims to ensure greater accountability for Foreign Corrupt Practices Act ("FCPA") violations and provide greater transparency for companies with regard to mitigation.
On February 18th, 2016 Turkey finally ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime and on the Financing of Terrorism Agreement.
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