Turkey's history of shopping malls go back as early as 1988
and the country saw a shopping mall boom since early 2000s. The
parliament now addresses the lack of legislation on shopping malls
through the Code on Regulation of Retail Trade
("Law") which came into force on January
Often used terms such as shopping mall, big-box store, chain
store, franchises and store brands are legally defined for the
PERBIS IS AN ELECTRONIC SYSTEM WHICH
STORES ALL APPLICATION FORMALITIES IN A SINGLE DATABASE.
PERBIS is introduced, which will shorten and simplify the
process for retail businesses to obtain formation and operation
licenses. Previously, different permits and licenses were required
from various authorities.
Also, metropolitan authorities will now grant the construction
permits to shopping malls, instead of district municipalities.
The Law provides a specific rule regarding the fees and
premiums, according to which, big-box stores, chain stores or
franchises can no longer abuse their market share and ask for such
fees and premiums from manufacturers and suppliers which do not
directly affect the product demand.
Other aspects are also regulated. Measures are taken to support
local manufacturers, prevent unfair competition between retailers
and have the shopping malls allocate spaces for customer's
medical, parental or religious needs.
Criticisms are expressed by the artisans having trouble to
compete with big shopping malls in addition to other labor-related
concerns as the Law allows the shopping malls to open on Sundays.
However, they were eventually turned a blind eye to by the Ministry
of Customs and Trade mainly for the reason that shopping malls
generate about 30% of their revenue on Sundays.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general
guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought
about your specific circumstances.
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An assignment of rights under a contract is normally restricted to the benefit of the contract. Where a party wishes to transfer both the benefit and burden of the contract this generally needs to be done by way of a novation.
Determining the limits of the capacity to have rights and
obligations of a joint-stock or limited liability company
("Company") is very crucial since it directly affects the
validity of a transaction that a Company performs
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